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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

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0515  

2013-05-15 07:40:11|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

 

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

 

 

8 traditional Chinese cuisines

 

China covers a large territory and has many ethnic groups, hence a variety of Chinese food with different but fantastic and mouthwatering flavor. Since China's local dishes have their own typical characteristics, generally, Chinese food can be roughly divided into eight regional cuisines, which has been widely accepted around. Certainly, there are many other local cuisines that are famous, such as Beijing Cuisine and Shanghai Cuisine.

 

 

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

We all know that DNA has the ability to identify individuals but, because it is inherited, there are also regions of the DNA strand which can relate an individual to his or her family (immediate and extended), tribal group and even an entire population. Molecular Genealogy (宗谱学) can use this unique identification provided by the genetic markers to link people together into family trees. Pedigrees (家谱) based on such genetic markers can mean a breakthrough for family trees where information is incomplete or missing due to adoption, illegitimacy or lack of records. There are many communities and populations which have lost precious records due to tragic events such as the fire in the Irish courts during Civil War in 1921 or American slaves for whom many records were never kept in the first place.

The main objective of the Molecular Genealogy Research Group is to build a database containing over 100,000 DNA samples from individuals all over the world. These individuals will have provided a pedigree chart of at least four generations and a small blood sample. Once the database has enough samples to represent the world genetic make-up, it will eventually help in solving many issues regarding genealogies that could not be done by relying only on traditional written records. Theoretically, any individual will someday be able to trace his or her family origins through this database.

In the meantime, as the database is being created, molecular genealogy can already verify possible or suspected relationships between individuals. “For example, if two men sharing the same last name believe that they are related, but no written record proves this relationship, we can verify this possibility by collecting a sample of DNA from both and looking for common markers (in this case we can look primarily at the Y chromosome (染色体)),” explains Ugo A. Perego, a member of the BYU Molecular Genealogy research team.

26. People in a large area may possess the same DNA thread because .

A) DNA is characteristic of a region

B) they are beyond doubt of common ancestry

C) DNA strand has the ability to identify individuals

D) their unique identification can be provided via DNA

27. The possible research of family trees is based on the fact that .

A) genetics has achieved a breakthrough

B) genetic information contained in DNA can be revealed now

C) each individual carries a unique record of who he is and how he is related to others

D) we can use DNA to prove how distant an individual is to a family, a group or a population

28. The Molecular Genealogy Research Group is building a database for the purpose of .

A) offering assistance in working out genealogy-related problems

B) solving many issues without relying on traditional written records

C) providing a pedigree chart of at least four generations in the world

D) confirming the assumption that all individuals are of the same origin

29. If two men suspected for some reason they have a common ancestor, .

A) we can decide according to their family tree

B) we can find the truth from their genetic markers

C) we can compare the differences in their Y chromosome

D) we can look for written records to prove their relationship

30. Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from the passage?

A) We are a walking,living,breathing record of our ancestors

B) Many American slaves did not know who their ancestors were.

C) An adopted child generally lacks enough information to prove his identity.

D) Molecular genealogy can be used to prove a relationship between individuals.

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

0515 - e-pie - 英语练功房

 

A food bank is the center of food collection and distribution in a community. This food usually 61 from grocery stores or manufacturers that have thousands of pounds of food to give 62 . Food banks operate intricate and advanced warehousing operations, 63 food is collected, 64 and re-distributed to the community. Traditionally, a food bank does not distribute food 65 to those in 66 . 67 ,food banks serve an 68 network of organizations in their 69 communities. These organizations serve one part of the 70 and know the needs of the people there. 71 ,working together, the food bank and the community organization can serve a greater 72 of people in the most efficient way.

Many food banks provide 73 services. They 74 from after school feeding programs, 75 Kids Cafe,to community agriculture projects.

In the aftermath (其后的一段时期) of welfare reform, food banks throughout the country are raising private 76 to operate innovative programs and to 77 those who are hungry. Every food bank strives to be a hunger advocate,producing 78 studies and tracking statistics, while lending their hands-on expertise to get legislation passed and ensuring that the 79 of domestic hunger is not lost in the shadow of an “ 80 boom”.

 

61. A) results B) collects C) comes D) gathers

62. A) away B) out C) over D) off

63. A) which B) where C) what D) how

64. A) accepted B) offered C) processed D) sorted

65. A) instantly B) directly C) voluntarily D) readily

66. A) need B) haste C) debt D) order

67. A) However B) Otherwise C) Instead D) Certainly

68. A) abnormal B) optional C) imaginary D) extensive

69. A) individual B) respective C) special D) widespread

70. A) organization B) bank C) operation D) community

71. A) Therefore B) Nevertheless C) Still D) Conversely

72. A) amount B) deal C) number D) quantity

73. A) regular B) other C) daily D) depositing

74. A) change B) alter C) differ D) range

75. A) including B) providing C) managing D) distributing

76. A) demands B) properties C) funds D) plans

77. A) shelter B) feed C) clothe D) finance

78. A) poverty B) welfare C) hunger D) food

79. A) issue B) policy C) reform D) project

80. A) economical B) economics C) economy D) economic

 

 

这是一篇科普类说明文。

文章提到,DNA可以用来识别个人身份。宗谱学利用遗传标记所提供的独有识别特征将人连成家族树。对于家族信息缺失的人来说,通过研究他们的遗传标记,可以使他们的家谱研究取得突破。宗谱学研究小组(the Molecular Genealogy Research Group)建立一个由10万基因样本组成的数据库,其最终目的是帮助解决仅靠传统文字资料不能完全解决的有关宗谱的问题。

26.B) 单句理解推断题 题干的意思是对第一句中“there are also regions of the DNA strand(也有一些区域具有同样的DNA线索)的改写,原因就是前面提到的“because it is inheritedDNA具有遗传性),既然是遗传,那么可以推断出具有同样DNA特征的人必定有同样的祖先。比较四个选项,B符合这样的意思。

27. C) 语义理解推断题 基于第一段第二、三句,我们知道遗传标记提供独有的识别特征(unique identification)把人们连接在一起,形成家族树。换句话说,能对家族树进行研究,是因为遗传标记的独有特征可以用来判断一个人的基因身份以及与他人之间的关系,C项正确。A)“遗传学取得突破B)“包含在DNA中的基因信息现在可以揭示出来没有回答进行家族树研究依据什么基础这样的问题;而D项强调DNA证明有多远(how distant与文章相孛。

28. A) 细节理解题 题干问的是建数据库的目的,对照第二段中“help in solving many issues regarding genealogies that could not be done by relying only…(有助于解决仅靠不能解决的宗谱有关的许多问题)”。四个选项:A)“解决宗谱有关的问题时提供帮助,正确;B)“无须依赖传统文字资料解决许多问题C)“提供代表世界基因构成的家谱树D)“获得10万份世界各地个人DNA样本均不正确。

29. B) 细节推断题 题干的表述相当于第三段第二句的“if two men sharing the same last name believe that they are related”,做题依据是本句的后半句“we can verify this possibility by collecting a sample of DNA from both and looking for common markers(通过采集两个人的DNA样本寻找共同的遗传标记来确定这种可能性)”B项符合。C)“比较他们Y染色体的不同,并非要强调不同,错误。

30. C) 篇章推断题 A)“我们的方方面面记录着我们的祖先,可以推断,因为DNA具有遗传特性;B)“许多美国黑奴不知道他们的祖先,正确,依据是第一段最后一句;C)“收养的孩子或者孤儿与他们的家族树没有关系,不正确,因为他们与家族树的关系是基因特征而不是其他因素决定的;D)“宗谱学能用来证明人与人之间的关系,识别和证明人的身份关系是宗谱学的目的,正确。

Cloze

本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了食物银行的概念、它的运作方式以及除了食品外食品银行其他方面的情况。文章最后提到,应该通过立法确保国内饥饿问题不要迷失于经济繁荣的阴影中

61. C) 根据句意,食品银行的食物来自于什么地方,C项正确。result from表示因为,由于,意思不妥。

62. A) give away此处解释为送掉,赠送A项正确。give out“公布,发表;用完give over“移交;停止(做某事)give off“发出(气味、信号等)

63. B)项正确。前半句意思是食品银行实行复杂而先进的仓储式运作,后半句是定语从句,由where引导,相当于during which

64. D)根据前后动词的意义确定该题选项,前面是收集食品,后面是再分发食品,中间应该取sort“对食品进行分类,而不是process“对食品加工D项正确。

65. B)下文提到通过机构网络提供服务,而不是直接发送食品,选B

66. A)those in need意为穷人,符合上下文意思,A项正确。

67. C)前半句为否定,后半句是肯定,中间用instead连接。C项正确。

68. D)an extensive network意为庞大的网络D项正确。

69. B)根据句意,各个机构服务各自的社区,应选respective

70. D)参照上一句,community正确。

71. A)从上下文意思判断,此处表示结果(therefore),而不是转折(nevertheless),让步(still)或对比(conversely),A正确。

72. C) a number of后接复数名词,a quantity of虽然也表示大量,一般不用于指人,如a quantity of meat,a quantity of vegetablesC项正确。

73. B)下文提到食品银行还经营儿童快餐和社区农业项目,所以本题选other

74. D) range from…to…是固定搭配:不等;涉及从…”

75. A)儿童快餐是课外食品供应项目的一部分,A项正确。

76. C)raise funds是词组,意为筹集资金

77. B)项正确,注意句末关键词hungry,所以用feed“提供食物

78. C)参看逗号前a hunger advocate“主张存在饥饿现象者,后面应该是对饥饿现象的研究,选C

79. A)本处的意思为国内饥饿现象这一问题,应选issueA项正确。

80. D)economic boom“经济繁荣,形容词作定语。

 

 

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