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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

日志

 
 

0228  

2013-02-28 08:01:05|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The whole atmosphere of the world in which we live is influenced by science, as is shown most immediately by our modern conveniences and material resources. A little deeper thinking shows that the influence of science goes much farther and colors the entire mental outlook of modern civilized man on the world about him. Perhaps one of the most telling evidences of this is his growing freedom from superstition(迷信). Freedom from superstition is the result of the belief that the world is not governed by sudden and foolish wishes, but that it is a world of order and can be understood by man if he will only try hard enough and be clever enough. This belief that the world is understandable is, doubtless, the most important single gift of science to civilization. The widespread acceptance of this view can be dated to the discovery by Newton of the universal influence of the law of gravitation; and for this reason Newton may be justly regarded as the most important person who made great contributions to modern life.

 

112. The title below that best expresses the SUBJECT MATTER of this passage is

[A] Science and Modern Conveniences

[B] Science and Civilisation

[C] Important Scientific Principles

[D] Science and the World of Moral Order

 

113. The greatest benefit of science has been

[A] the encouragement of deep thinking

[B] the work of reconstruction

[C] the development of material resources

[D] an understanding that the world has order

 

114. The passage implies that, prior to Newton, _____.

[A] men felt nature to be essentially inscrutable

[B] men were unable to cope with the changing factors in nature

[C] men understood nature but did not apply their knowledge

[D] The humanities were of little value

 

115. We may reasonably conclude that the author of this passage m

ay best be described as inclined to be.

[A] intuitive in his approaches to the major problems

[B] rational in his approaches to problems

[C] rational in his approaches to problems and decisive in his conclusion

[D] sweeping in his generalisations and insufficiently reflective

 

116. "Caprice" as used in the passage means _____.

[A] logic

[B] luck

[C] power

[D] change

   People on a college campus were more likely to give money to the March of Dimes if they were asked for a donation by a disabled woman in a wheelchair than if asked by a nondisabled woman. In another __50__, subway riders in New York saw a man carrying a stick stumble (绊脚) and fall to the floor. Sometimes the victim had a large red birthmark on his __51__; sometimes he did not. In this situation, the victim was more likely to __52__ aid if his face was spotless than if he had an unattractive birthmark. In __53__ these and other research findings, two themes are __54__: we are more willing to help people we like for some reason and people we think __55__ assistance.

        In some situations, those who are physically attractive are more likely to receive aid. __56__, in a field study researchers placed a completed application to graduate school in a telephone box at the airport. The application was ready to be __57__, but had apparently been "lost". The photo attached to the application was sometimes that of a very __58__ person and sometimes that of a less attractive person. The measure of helping was whether the individual who found the envelope actually mailed it or not. Results showed that people were more likely to __59__ the application if the person in the photo was physically attractive.

        The degree of __60__ between the potential helper and the person in need is also important. For example, people are more likely to help a stranger who is from the same country rather than a foreigner. In one study, shoppers on a busy street in Scotland were more likely to help a person wearing a(n) __61__ T-shirt than a person wearing a T-shirt printed with offensive words.

        Whether a person receives help depends in part on the "worth" of the case. For example, shoppers in a supermarket were more likely to give someone. __62__ to buy milk rather than to buy cookies, probably because milk is thought more essential for __63__ than cookies. Passengers on a New York subway were more likely to help a man who fell to the ground if he appeared to be __64__ rather than drunk.

 

50.  A. study              B. way               C. word                   D. college

51. A. hand               B. arm               C. face                    D. back

52.  A. refuse             B. beg              C. lose                     D. receive

53.  A. challenging    B. recording      C. understanding     D. publishing

54. A. important         B. possible       C. amusing               D. missing

55.  A. seek               B. deserve        C. obtain                  D. accept

56. A. At first        B. Above all         C. In addition      D. For example

57. A. printed       B. mailed             C. rewritten         D. signed

58. A. talented     B. good-looking   C. helpful            D. hard-working

59. A. send in       B. throw away      C. fill out             D. turn down

60.  A. similarity      B. friendship     C. cooperation        D. contact

61.  A. expensive    B. plain             C. cheap                 D. strange

62.  A. time            B. instructions   C. money          D. chances

63. A. shoppers    B. research       C. children         D. health

64.  A. talkative     B. handsome     C. calm              D. sick

 

 While still catching-up to men in some spheres of modern life, women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category. “Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men,” according to Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York’s Veteran’s Administration Hospital.

①Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions.  ②In several of the studies, when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries (the female reproductive organs) removed, their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.

③Adding to a woman’s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress. “It’s not necessarily that women don’t cope as well. It’s just that they have so much more to cope with,” says Dr. Yehuda. “Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men’s,” she observes, “it’s just that they’re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.”

Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes. “I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature. Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress. Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence. ④The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations, by, unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals. The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating.”

Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son, but was determined to finish college. “I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.” Later, her marriage ended and she became a single mother. “It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.”

Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Alvarez describes. But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain. ⑤Alvarez’s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function.

 

21.  Which of the following is true according to the first two paragraphs?

[A] Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.

[B] Women are still suffering much stress caused by men.

[C] Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.

[D] Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.

 

22.  Dr. Yehuda’s research suggests that women

[A] need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress.

[B] have limited capacity for tolerating stress.

[C] are more capable of avoiding stress.

[D] are exposed to more stress.

 

23.  According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be

[A] domestic and temporary.

[B] irregular and violent.

[C] durable and frequent.

[D] trivial and random.

 

24.  The sentence “I lived from paycheck to paycheck.” (Line 6, Para. 5) shows that

[A] Alvarez cared about nothing but making money.

[B] Alvarez’s salary barely covered her household expenses.

[C] Alvarez got paychecks from different jobs.

[D] Alvarez paid practically everything by check.

 

25.  Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] Strain of Stress: No Way Out?

[B] Responses to Stress: Gender Difference

[C] Stress Analysis: What Chemicals Say

[D] Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress

 

 

 

 

Sometimes people call each other “scared-cat”, but have you ever thought about this expression? When a cat is frightened, its heart starts beating faster, its muscles get tense, and there are changes in the chemicals in its blood- stream.

Although the cat doesn’t    16   this, its body is getting ready for action.

If the danger continues, this animal will do one of the two things. It will   17   itself, or it will run away as fast as it can.

  18  , when people are excited, angry, scared, or aroused by other emotions, our bodies also go through many   19   changes. Our hearts beat faster, and our muscles get tense. All of these changes make us more alert and ready to react. We, too, get ready to defend ourselves   20   run.

Human beings,   21   , have a problem that animals never face. If we give way to our feelings and let them   22   , we can get into trouble. Have you ever said something in anger, or hit somebody and regretted it later? Have you ever shouted at a teacher, told someone you were lonely, or said you were in love, and then   23   later you had kept your mouth shut? It isn’t always   24   to express your feelings freely.

Does this mean that it’s smarter always to   25   our feelings? No! If you   26   feelings of anger, sadness, and bitterness hidden away or bottled up inside, your body stays   27  . Physical illnesses can develop. It can actually be   28   for your health.

Feelings that you keep all bottled up inside, don’t just   29   . It’s like you bought some bananas and stuck them in a cupboard. You might not be able to see them, but   30   you’d smell them. And if you opened the cupboard, you’d   31   little fruit flies hovering (盘旋) all over them. They’d be rotten.

You can try to treat emotions   32   they were bananas in the cupboard. You can   33   they don’t exist, but they’ll still be   34  . And at last you’ll have to   35   them. Just like those bananas.

 

16. A. mind         B. admit        C. realize       D. remember

17. A. save         B. help         C. defend        D. hide

18. A. Truly        B. Frequently   C. Similarly     D. Differently

19. A. chemical     B. physical     C. health        D. ill

20. A. and          B. or           C. but           D. yet

21. A. therefore    B. but          C. besides       D. however

22. A. take off     B. take on      C. take over     D. take up

23. A. wished       B. hoped        C. blamed        D. shared

24. A. useful       B. right        C. easy          D. wise

25. A. handle       B. hurt         C. hide          D. prevent

26. A. keep         B. find         C. control       D. let

27. A. relaxed      B. tense        C. same          D. different

28. A. good         B. harmful      C. helpful       D. useful

29. A. go away      B. go on        C. go up         D. go out

30. A. long before  B. as usual     C. before long   D. right away

31. A. meet         B. observe      C. catch         D. see

32. A. as if        B. just as      C. just after    D. even though

33. A. pretend      B. expect       C. decide        D. assume

34. A. in           B. around       C. over          D. beyond

35. A. eat up       B. deal with    C. throw away    D. send out

 

 

 

【全文翻译】

在现代生活中女性就算是在某些领域可以追赶上男性,但至少在一个方面是领先的,尽管是她们不太想要的。纽约的退伍军管理医院精神科首席医生Yehuda博士说道,和男性相比,女性面对压力时,更容易受到影响,导致抑郁和紧张。

对于动物和人类的研究都显示出性激素会在某种程度去影响面对压力的反应,导致在同样的条件下,女性产生更多的致病化学物质。在几项研究中,当受到压力的雌鼠的卵巢(雌性的生殖器官)被拿掉后,它们的化学反应变得和那些雄性的一样了。

对于女性来说,除了产生更多的导致压力的化学物质外,她们产生压力的机会也更多。并不是女性要处理的事情太少,而是她们有更多的事情要处理。”Yehuda博士说道。她们对于压力的承受能力有时候甚至比男性的还大,她观察到,她们只是需要处理的事情太多,看起来会更容易精疲力尽。

Yehuda博士注意到了另一个男女之间的不同点。我认为,女性通常要做的事是慢性的,重复的。而男人去战场,承受的是格斗的压力。男性面临的更多的是随意的身体上的暴力。女性面对的人与人之间的暴力是在家庭环境中的。不幸的是,她们与父母还有其他的家庭成员之间不是能够一次性解决的问题。这种长期的关系的磨合是更有破坏性的。

Adeline Alvarez 18岁结婚并生了个儿子,但她决定完成大学学业。我尽了很大的努力拿到大学学位,因为我在实际生活中有很多的挫折,而这就是我的逃避,去学校,争取上游,做到更好。不久后,她离了婚变成一个单亲母亲。除了照顾一个十几岁的孩子,还要工作,付房租,养车,还债是最难的事情了。我的生活就是不停的支付自己的账单。

不是每个人经历着和Alvarez describes一样的长期的压力,但是大多数女性都在处理着太多的责任,很少得到喘息,从而感到了压力。Alvarez的经历证明了当压力威胁你的健康和正常生理功能之前解压是非常重要的。

 

【参考答案解析】

21.  参考答案【A

【解析】 A.从文中Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to menStudies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response, causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions.2句话可以看出由于激素荷尔蒙的原因,女性在生理上面对压力时更脆弱。B.文中没有表明女性受到来自于男性的压力。CD 在前2段中没有说明,故选A

 

22.  参考答案D

【解析】D.首先定位,Dr. Yehuada’s 在第3段中,第一句话, Adding to a woman’s increased dose of stress chemicals, are her increased “opportunities” for stress.女性的压力化学物质增多,她面对压力的机会就会增加。也就是更容易暴露在更多的压力下。A.参考答案中有”chemicals”,但是表达的意思是处理压力需要额外的,更多的化学物质,和原文意思不符。B.文中有一句话,“Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men’s,”她们处理压力的能力也许甚至比男性还大,而参考答案的意思是女性处理压力的能力有限,与原文不符。C.参考答案中是“avoiding stress”,而原文中没有提到避免压力。故选D

 

23.参考答案C

【解析】C.先回到原文,第4段,“The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating”来自于这些更长关系的磨损甚至可以是灾难性的。长期的,所以是durable;文中又说,“unfortunately, parents or other family members, and they tend not to be one-shot deals.”they tend not to be one-shot deals,说明不是一次两次,而是经常性的,所以是frequentA. domestic是对的,文中有提及到,但是不是temporary,短暂的,而是长期的。Bviolent是男性面对的压力的特点,而不是女性。D. random也是男性面对的压力的特点,而不是女性。故选C

 

24.  参考答案B

【解析】B.第五段最后定位,“It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent, pay the car payment, and pay the debt. I lived from paycheck to paycheck.”说明Alvarez生活很艰难,参考答案中Alvarez的工资仅能支付房租符合文中的意思A Alvarez只关心赚钱,与原文不符。CAlvarez从不同的工作中赚钱,在原文中没有体现。D Alvarez每件东西都是用支票支付的,在原文中没有体现。故选B

 

25.  参考答案D

【解析】D.选出文章的最佳标题,性别的不公平:压力下的女性,最符合原文的意思。A.紧张的压力:无路可出?文中主要是谈女性与压力,这个参考答案不符。B.面对压力的反应:性别的不同,,很多人会误选成这个参考答案,但是文章整篇是强调女性和压力的分析,而不是重点讨论男女性别在压力上的差别。C.压力分析:化学物质告诉我们的,,这个标题倾向于分析压力产生的原因,和原文意思相差较大。故选D

 

 

16——20 CCCBB 21——25 DCADC 26——30ABBAC 31——35 DAABB

Sometimes people call each other “scared-cat”, but have you ever thought about this expression? When a cat is frightened, its heart starts beating faster, its muscles get tense, and there are changes in the chemicals in its blood- stream.

Although the cat doesn’t    16   this, its body is getting ready for action.

If the danger continues, this animal will do one of the two things. It will   17   itself, or it will run away as fast as it can.

16. A. mind         B. admit        C. realize       D. remember

解题思路题眼法\代入法

捕捉题眼,寻找契机:所谓题眼就是解题线索,就是那些原句中出现的、对解题起重要暗示作用的关键词。找准关键词语,有时题干中带有对解题起着关键作用的词语,如果能迅速找准这些词语,再结合各选项的意义和特点,就能很快选出正确答案。

17. A. save         B. help         C. defend        D. hide

解题思路没有同义复现或固定搭配,考虑概括的是解。

并列结构法: 根据文章中表示并列关系的连词或副词如:and/also/or或逗号等,它们的提点是and前后的成分结构相似,意义相关,再做出准确判断。

 

  18  , when people are excited, angry, scared, or aroused by other emotions, our bodies also go through many   19   changes. Our hearts beat faster, and our muscles get tense. All of these changes make us more alert and ready to react. We, too, get ready to defend ourselves   20   run.

18. A. Truly        B. Frequently   C. Similarly     D. Differently

解题思路:前后呼应法\代入法

前后呼应法:做完形填空要始终抓住文章本身,联系双语境判断做题,即大语境——全文中心和基调;小语境——空格前后所构成的语意环境;再根据前有伏笔,后有呼应的思路做题。

句群、段落、篇章等。语篇与语篇之间往往有表明其内在联系的词语,这些词语被称为语篇标志
   
如表示结构层次的语篇标志语有: firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally等;
    
表示逻辑关系的语篇标志语有:  thus, therefore, so等;
    
表示改变话题的语篇标志语有:  by the way等;
     
表示递进关系的语篇标志语有:  besides, what’s more, further等;
    
表示时间关系的语篇标志语有:  before, so far, yet, meanwhile, later等。

19. A. chemical     B. physical     C. health        D. ill

解题思路:摆脱思维定势,排除陷阱 chemical 后提示句Our hearts beat faster, and our muscles get tense.都是physical

20. A. and          B. or           C. but           D. yet

解题思路:与前面句子It will   17   itself, or it will run away as fast as it can. 同义复现。

同义复现:是英语中常见的一种现象。为强调某一意思,但又不想重复使用某个词,文中前后两处会使用一组同义词或同义词组。由于在完形填空题中,这两个同义词的位置多半比较靠近,很容易找到。无须过多推理,只须确定相同的是哪个意思,然后找出选项中与之相符的一项即可。

Human beings,   21   , have a problem that animals never face. If we give way to our feelings and let them   22   , we can get into trouble. Have you ever said something in anger, or hit somebody and regretted it later? Have you ever shouted at a teacher, told someone you were lonely, or said you were in love, and then   23   later you had kept your mouth shut? It isn’t always   24   to express your feelings freely.

21. A. therefore    B. but          C. besides       D. however

解题思路:转折特点:

but转折法:文中一出现“but” “Although” “though” “however,” “while”等词,应该马上想到前后语意有转折。只要知道其中一方的语意,就可以反向推出另一方的意思,从而解题。完形填空题中,but一词后多半会设题。所以,大家在考试时,只要看到but就做一个标记,遇到类似but这样表转折的词也同样处理。这样便于回到原文去寻找解题的依据。

22. A. take off     B. take on      C. take over     D. take up

解题思路:and并列结构法,give way to的同义词let 。。take          

23. A. wished       B. hoped        C. blamed        D. shared

解题思路:利用语法分析解题,选项中的动词都是过去式,其后句宾语从句had kept是过去完成时,故判断是虚拟。

24. A. useful       B. right        C. easy          D. wise

解题思路:暗示法smarter的近义词是          

利用暗示和对应解题:虽然重点是对语法、短语和词的辨析、句子结构的考查,但对文章故事情节发展线索的逻辑考查仍是重点。暗示与上下对应的思维方法,是突破此类完形填空最关键的思维方式。

Does this mean that it’s smarter always to   25   our feelings? No! If you   26   feelings of anger, sadness, and bitterness hidden away or bottled up inside, your body stays   27  . Physical illnesses can develop. It can actually be   28   for your health.

25. A. handle       B. hurt         C. hide          D. prevent

解题思路:同义复现法

26. A. keep         B. find         C. control       D. let

解题思路:利用语法分析解题,动词      可以带宾补hidden away or bottled up inside

27. A. relaxed      B. tense        C. same          D. different

解题思路:跨段落篇章复现tense

查找文章多处反复复现概念的已知词:复现可以是相同的词在文章的不同地方重复出现。复现的解题意义在于:如果判断出一个未知填空与上下文的那些已知词汇有复现关系,只要从选项中选出与那些词汇意义相同的就是正确答案。

28. A. good         B. harmful      C. helpful       D. useful

解题思路:利用关联成分,将illnesses设置成已知,另一个是未知的,这样那个已知的词语便成为破解未知词语的关键线索。illnesses会对health        

Feelings that you keep all bottled up inside, don’t just   29   . It’s like you bought some bananas and stuck them in a cupboard. You might not be able to see them, but   30   you’d smell them. And if you opened the cupboard, you’d   31   little fruit flies hovering (盘旋) all over them. They’d be rotten.

29. A. go away      B. go on        C. go up         D. go out

解题思路:看清上下文,找准定位词充分利用文章的上下文和前后句,找到对选择有提示作用的词或句,go         ? 

看看文章中动词都与哪些副词或介词搭配成动词短语? 

It will   17   itself, or it will run away as fast as it can.

No! If you   26   feelings of anger, sadness, and bitterness hidden away or bottled up inside, your body stays   27  .

30. A. long before  B. as usual     C. before long   D. right away

解题思路:利用语法分析解题but   30   you’d smell them. 句中的’d=would是过去将来时.in no time=by and by=in a flash=before long=soon是将来时的时间状语,表示很快;而right away=right now=quickly=at once=immediately则不受限制!

31. A. meet         B. observe      C. catch         D. see

解题思路:利用语法分析解题,you’d   31   little fruit flies hovering (盘旋) all over them. A. meet B. observe C. catch D. seelittle fruit flies hovering (盘旋)

 

You can try to treat emotions   32   they were bananas in the cupboard. You can   33   they don’t exist, but they’ll still be   34  . And at last you’ll have to   35   them. Just like those bananas.

32. A. as if        B. just as      C. just after    D. even though

解题思路:利用语法分析解题,You can try to treat emotions   32   they were bananas in the cupboard.是虚拟句。

33. A. pretend      B. expect       C. decide        D. assume

解题思路:抉择于A. pretend D. assume之间,         exist

绝对相近法:它是从选项着手分析的,若四个选项中有两个选项绝对矛盾、相近和对立,那么正确选项大多在这两个对立项之间产生,二者必居其一,至于究竟是两者中的哪一个,则需进一步根据上下文的语境判断。注意固定的搭配,包括动词与介词的搭配、动词与名词的搭配以及形容词与名词的搭配等,同时要根据内容选择正确的短语。

34. A. in           B. around       C. over          D. beyond

解题思路:exist =be there, there= in? around? Over? beyond?

35. A. eat up       B. deal with    C. throw away    D. send out

解题思路:容易错选C.throw away,概括的是解。

 

 

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