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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

日志

 
 

0123  

2013-01-23 08:36:09|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.

It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.

We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. “So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.’”

Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists.

Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.

21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that

[A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.

[B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.

[C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.

[D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.

22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by

[A] free themes.

[B] casual style.

[C] elaborate layout.

[D] radical viewpoints.

23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?

[A] It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.

[B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.

[C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.

[D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.

24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?

[A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.

[B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.

[C] His style caters largely to modern specialists.

[D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.

25. What would be the best title for the text?

[A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days

[B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers

[C] Mournful Decline of Journalism

[D] Prominent Critics in Memory

 

 

When it comes to eating smart for your heart, stop thinking about short-term fixes and simplify your life with a straightforward approach that will serve you well for years to come.

Smart eating goes beyond analyzing every bite of food you lift __67__ your mouth. “In the past we used to believe that __68__ amounts of individual nutrients (营养物) were the __69__ to good health,” Linda Van Horn, chair of the American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee. "But now we have a __70__ understanding of healthy eating and the kinds of food necessary to __71__ not only heart disease but disease __72__ general," she adds.

Scientists now __73__ on the broader picture of the balance of food eaten __74__ several days or a week __75__ than on the number of milligrams (毫克) of this or that __76__ at each meal.

Fruits, vegetables and whole grains, for example, provide nutrients and plant-based compounds __77__ for good health. “The more we learn, the more __78__ we are by the wealth of essential substances they __79__," Van Horn continues, "and how they __80__ with each other to keep us healthy."

You'll automatically be __81__ the right heart-healthy track if vegetables, fruits and whole grains make __82__ three quarters of the food on your dinner plate. __83__ in the remaining one quarter with lean meat or chicken, fish or eggs.

The foods you choose to eat as well as those you choose to __84__ clearly contribute to your well-being. Without a __85__, each of the small decisions you make in this realm can make a big __86__ on your health in the years to come.

 

67. A) between             B) through             C) inside        D)to

68. A) serious               B) splendid            C) specific        D) separate

69. A) key                 B) point              C) lead             D) center

70. A) strict                 B) different           C) typical           D) natural

71. A) rescue                B) prevent             C) forbid        D) offend

72. A) in                   B) upon                 C)for            D)by

73. A) turn                 B)put                    C) focus         D) carry

74. A) over                  B) along         C) with                 D)beyond

75. A) other                 B) better         C) rather                D)sooner

76. A) conveyed           B) consumed          C) entered             D) exhausted

77 A) vital                    B) initial        C) valid                 D) radical

78. A) disturbed           B) depressed         C) amazed             D) amused

79. A) retain            B) contain                C) attain             D) maintain

80. A) interfere            B) interact             C) reckon              D) rest

81. A) at               B) of                C) on                      D) within

82. A) out             B) into                  C) off                   D) up

83. A) Engage          B) Fill                   C) Insert                D) Pack

84. A) delete           B) hinder                C) avoid                D) spoil

85. A) notion             B) hesitation          C) reason                D) doubt

86. A) outcome          B) function            C) impact              D) commitment

 

 

 

 

 

21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that
A arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.
B English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.
C high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.
D young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.

【正确选项解析】【B 由第一段的 decline in scope 和第二段的a considerable number 都在强调以前的报纸关于艺术评论数量很多,所以选择B

【干扰选项分析】【A 比较容易排除。与第一段矛盾,原文只是说decline, 即下降,没有说消失(disappear

C 比较容易排除。"高质量的报纸未丧失大量的读者"。无中生有。

D 强干扰项。"年轻的读者怀疑报纸上的评论不合适"。原文:《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》marvel v. be very surprised (and often admiring) 大为惊讶(常含赞叹之意),表明其实读者是赞同:这些评论可以再报纸上刊登的。这里的doubt 表示怀疑,所以与marvel意思相反。

      We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War 2,at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business. and even those reviews who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in ournalism,Newman wrote, "that I am tempted to define "journalism" as "a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are".

【考点分析】否定常考(unfocused)出22题。承接上文,上文讲我们的评论数量减少,这里继续讲我们甚至离20世纪初到二战期间的报纸评论也相差很远。Even farther removed from 表明作者的惋惜之情。 in detail and at length"详细的" serious"严肃的"calling"对做某项工作的强烈欲望或责任感" proud"骄傲" 上面的这些词都表明二战前的报纸评论的风格。否定常考,出23题。"因此,几乎没有人有足够的智慧或文学天赋在新闻事业上成就自己,我更喜欢吧新闻事业定义为"被假作家耻辱地使用了的术语,对真作家来说,他们不足挂齿""其实本句话中Newman wrote,后面的根本不需要看懂。

22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War 2 were characterized by
A free themes.
B casual style.
C elaborate layout.
D radical viewpoints.

【正确选项解析】【A unfocused的英文解释:not concentrated at one point or upon one objective, free的英文解释是unrestricted,所以unfocused = free ,属于同义替换。

【干扰选项分析】
B 请看《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》字典对casual 的解释:(amade or done without much care or thought; offhand 不经意的; 随便的; 马虎的; 临时的(b) (derog ) showing little concern; nonchalant; irresponsible 漠不关心的; 无动於衷的; 不负责任的(c) not methodical or thorough; not serious 无条理的; 不彻底的; 不认真的 .这几个意思都是和 in detail and at length"详细的" serious"严肃的"calling"对做某项工作的强烈欲望或责任感" proud"骄傲"相矛盾的。所以不选。
C 强干扰项。elaborate 可以替换原文中的in detail ,但是layout(布局)无中生有,所以本题与原文不相符合。
D radical 激进的 无中生有。

23. Which of the following would shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
A It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
B It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.
C Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
D Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
【正确选项解析】【D 同义替换。Few= not all have brains enough or literary gift enough =capable of
注意:D选项中not all属于部分否定,语气委婉,在选项中出现往往正确。

【干扰选项分析】【A journalistic goals(新闻业的目标),无中生有。
B "作家成为记者是值得鄙视的。"proud (自豪的)相反。
C "作者容易被新闻业吸引"。对偷梁换柱。原文说的是被define "journalism" as... 所吸引,而不是被journalism所吸引。

   Unfortunately,these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England's foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists.


【考点分析】否定常考+段首常考。"不幸的是,这些批评家几乎被忘记了。"言语之间是作者对报纸评论堕落的惋惜之情。-是举Neville Cardus的例子来论证以前的评论家怎么被忘记的,可以略读。

   Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote.Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly uphostered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover,the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.

【考点分析】特殊标点常考,出25题。笔者在课堂中反复强调出现问号是必考的。"Cardus'那样的评论会重现吗?不太可能!"再一次点明了作者所讨论的中心:报纸行业的堕落(decline),要注意decline中的revival是反义词。讲理由,出24题。

24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
A His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.
B His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.
C His style caters largely to modern specialists.
D His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.

【正确选项解析】【A 说新闻业的品味已经改变,读者不需要(have little use for)他所擅长的风格,所以Cardus's criticism不可能复苏。而A Cardus's criticism也许不能吸引当今的读者。 注意have little use for= not appeal to
同时本选项还有may,这个语气委婉的词,符合黄四"正确答案语气委婉"

【干扰选项分析】【B原文没有提到他的名声有争议,所以无中生有。
C "他的风格符合现在的专家"与本段最后一句相矛盾。
D 移花接木,是利用最后一句话编造的选项。

25. What would be the best title for the text?
A Newspapers of the Good Old Days
B The Lost Horizon in Newspapers
C Mournful Decline of Journalism
D Prominent Critics in Memory
【正确选项解析】主旨题,可以利用串线法解出本题。第一段开宗明义:过去这些年英语报纸上所发生的最有影响力的变化的可能是艺术评论的在报道范围和严肃性的堕落(decline)。第二段承接第一段的意思。第三段首句:"不幸的是,这些批评家几乎被忘记了。"言语之间是作者对报纸评论堕落的惋惜之情。第四段:"Cardus'那样的评论会重现吗?不太可能!"再一次点明了作者所讨论的中心:报纸行业的堕落(decline),所以C:令人惋惜的新闻业的堕落。mournful是大纲词汇。

【干扰选项分析】【A "报纸行业过去的黄金岁月"。没有点出作者对现在的报纸的惋惜之情
B "报纸行业的消失的视野" 本选项的错误类型和A一样。
D "记忆中的杰出的评论家"本文的中心不是怀恋过去,而是批判现在的堕落。

 

 

When it comes to eating smart for your heart, stop thinking about short-term fixes and simplify your life with a straightforward approach that will serve you well for years to come.

Smart eating goes beyond analyzing every bite of food you lift __67__ your mouth. “In the past we used to believe that __68__ amounts of individual nutrients (营养物) were the __69__ to good health,” Linda Van Horn, chair of the American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee. "But now we have a __70__ understanding of healthy eating and the kinds of food necessary to __71__ not only heart disease but disease __72__ general," she adds.

Scientists now __73__ on the broader picture of the balance of food eaten __74__ several days or a week __75__ than on the number of milligrams (毫克) of this or that __76__ at each meal.

Fruits, vegetables and whole grains, for example, provide nutrients and plant-based compounds __77__ for good health. “The more we learn, the more __78__ we are by the wealth of essential substances they __79__," Van Horn continues, "and how they __80__ with each other to keep us healthy."

You'll automatically be __81__ the right heart-healthy track if vegetables, fruits and whole grains make __82__ three quarters of the food on your dinner plate. __83__ in the remaining one quarter with lean meat or chicken, fish or eggs.

The foods you choose to eat as well as those you choose to __84__ clearly contribute to your well-being. Without a __85__, each of the small decisions you make in this realm can make a big __86__ on your health in the years to come.

 

67. A) between             B) through             C) inside        D)to

68. A) serious               B) splendid            C) specific        D) separate

69. A) key                 B) point              C) lead             D) center

70. A) strict                 B) different           C) typical           D) natural

71. A) rescue                B) prevent             C) forbid        D) offend

72. A) in                   B) upon                 C)for            D)by

73. A) turn                 B)put                    C) focus         D) carry

74. A) over                  B) along         C) with                 D)beyond

75. A) other                 B) better         C) rather                D)sooner

76. A) conveyed           B) consumed          C) entered             D) exhausted

77       A) vital                    B) initial        C) valid                 D) radical

78. A) disturbed           B) depressed         C) amazed             D) amused

79. A) retain            B) contain                C) attain             D) maintain

80. A) interfere            B) interact              C) reckon              D) rest

81. A) at               B) of                C) on                      D) within

82. A) out             B) into                  C) off                   D) up

83. A) Engage          B) Fill                   C) Insert                D) Pack

84. A) delete           B) hinder                C) avoid                D) spoil

85. A) notion             B) hesitation          C) reason                D) doubt

86. A) outcome          B) function            C) impact              D) commitment

 

Answers:

67. to

68. specific

69. key

70. different

71. prevent

72. in

73. focus

74. over

75. rather

76. consumed

77. vital

78. amazed

79. contain

80. interact

81. on

82. up

83. fill

84. avoid

85. doubt

86. impact

 

这是一篇关于科学饮食的科技新闻。

为了让学生快速进入语境,文章第一段没有挖空。

从第一段中,我们可以获得全文主旨:科学饮食的真谛是从大处着眼

67. 第二段首句有个定语从句:科学饮食远不止分析每一口放到嘴里的饭。这里要选择一个介词,lift 的原意是高举,在这里的意思就是“放到嘴边”,to 表示方向。 between 表示在某某之间,不合题意。inside 表示静态,与lift这个动作相矛盾。同理,B选项through,表示穿过,lift这个动作,到嘴边就结束了,并没有穿过嘴巴。

68. 按照原文的逻辑,接下来的一句话,表达过去人们如何如何,是为了给出“靶子”加以批评,所以,我们需要继续往后读,读到作者提倡的做法,然后反向理解一下,便可选出答案。

69. 根据语法搭配,只有key才可以和后面的to相搭配,所以选择A选项。

70. 句首的but,是题眼,表达对比之意,所以,下文开始讲述“另一种”“不同的”饮食习惯。因此,选择B选项,different

71. 这里是个不定式短语,需要一个动词,由宾语heart disease可知,“prevent(预防)是最佳搭配。

72. 考察和general搭配的介词,只有in 符合语法。

73. 需要一个动词和on搭配,语法上四个选项都可以搭配,只能从词义上判断,turn on 表示打开,focus on 表示注重,put on 表示穿衣,carry on 表示执行。根据宾语,“更广的层面”,可知应该选择focus on

74. 需要一个和“时间段”搭配的介词,over a period of time 表示一段时间以来,符合题意。

75. 这里表示“是什么而不是什么”,应该用rather than 才能准确达意。

76. 这是个分词短语作后置定语修饰前面的“this or that”,这里的this or that代指食物。convey是表达,不搭配。enter 可以表示“输入,记下”,也不和食物搭配。和食物搭配的只有BDconsume表示,消费或消耗。exhaust 表示耗尽。很明显,这里的食物并不会耗尽,所以只能选B选项。

这里我们可以回过头来,看一下第68题,文章的主旨是,“Scientist now focus on the broader picture of the balance of food eaten over several days or a week”即“科学家现在注重最近几天内的均衡饮食”,与此能够形成对比的,“单个营养元素的定量摄入”,这里能表达特定量的词只有“certain”或者“specific”,这里用certain更自然,但是没有提供选项,因此就只能选择specific,表示“特定的”。

77. 需要个形容词,做后置定语,和for good health 搭配,这里只有vital 能和for搭配,表示“对…重要”。

78. 这里是一个 The morethe more 的固定表达,表示“越……越……”,这里用amazed表达科研人员,对新发现所产生的“惊奇之感”。

79. 这里的they表示食物,结合后面的动词,构成定语从句,修饰“必备营养元素”,这里的用contain才能准确达意,“食物包含必备营养元素”

80. 需要一个动词和with搭配,只能选择AB,但从语义上判断,必备营养元素之间会相互反应,肯定不会相互干扰。因此只能选择interact

81. 这里需要一个介词和track搭配,只有 on the right track才符合语法

82. 这里根据题意,“蔬菜、水果和谷物构成了饭菜的四分之三”,这里make up表达“构成”之意。

83. 这里需要一个动词,宾语是“剩余的四分之一”,从语义上理解,我们需要选择“填充”,因此,fill in 是符合语法的。

84. 这里需要一个动词,结合题意,这个空应该表达“不吃”,才能和前面的eat形成对比,这里的avoid,表达避免的意思,比delete(删除)更切题。

85. 文章在最后一句,要下一个结论,这里用without a doubt 表达“毫无疑问”,符合题目要求。

86. 这里需要一个名词,和on搭配,只有impact符合题意。

 

 

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