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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

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你会用 this,that,it 吗?  

2012-08-10 09:10:11|  分类: 语法难点 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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this和that意为“这个”和“那个”,是英语中的常见词,常用来作形容词和代词,下面我们讲讲this和that的用法区别

1.this常用来指离说话者较近的人或者事物,这时常常是在说话进行的过程中。
I don't know what I'm doing in this country.(Not...in that country.)我不知道我在这个乡村干什么?
This is very nice-how do you cook it?这个看起来非常好,你怎么煮它?
Get this cat off my shoulder.把我肩上的猫拿下来。

that用来指离说话者较远的人或者事物
I don't like that boy you're going out with.(NOT...this boy...)我不喜欢你约会的那个男孩。
That smells nice,is it for lunch? 闻起来香极了,是为午餐准备的吗?
Get that cat off the piano.让那只猫从钢琴上下来。


2.this用来谈论正在发生或即将发生的事情,用现在时和将来时。
I like this music,What is it?我喜欢这首歌,它是什么?
Listen to this,You'll like it.听下这个,你将会喜欢它的。


that则用来指已经完成的事情。
That was nice,What was it?那个看起来很不错,它是什么?
Who said that?那个是谁说的?


3.在电话中,英国人经常用this表示他们自己,用that表示受听者。如:
Hello,This is Elizabeth,Is that Ruth?你好,我是伊丽莎白,你是鲁思吗?

美式英语中,则都用this.

4.类似this和that用法区别的还有以下几组词:
(1)here和there的区别
(2)come和go的用法区别
(3)bring和take的用法区别

 

this/that与the的区别
我还是把这三个词的不同用法说明一下,并把它们与相近意义或用法的词加以辩析

定冠词的用法
定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。
1)特指双方都明白的人或物:
Take the medicine.把药吃了。
2)上文提到过的人或事:
He bought a house.I've been to the house.
他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。

3)指世上独一物二的事物:
the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth
4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。

5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same等前面:
Where do you live?I live on the second floor.你住在哪?我住在二层。
That's the very thing I've been looking for.那正是我要找的东西。
6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体:
They are the teachers of this school.(指全体教师)
They are teachers of this school.(指部分教师)

7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前:
She caught me by the arm..她抓住了我的手臂。
8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前:
the People's Republic of China中华人民共和国
the United States美国

9)用在表示乐器的名词之前:She plays the piano.她会弹钢琴。
10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:
the Greens格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)

11) 用在惯用语中:
in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening),the day after tomorrow
the day before yesterday,the next morning,
in the sky (water,field,country)
in the dark,in the rain,in the distance,
in the middle (of),in the end,
on the whole,by the way,go to the theatre

你会用 this,that,it 吗?
指“物”
1 this 指近物,that 指远物,it 没有远近之分。如:
This is a computer. 这是一台电脑。(在近处)
That is a bike. 那是一辆自行车。 (在远处)

2 在回答 this 和 that 作主语的疑问句时,常用 it 代替 this 和 that。如:
-Is this/ that a car? 这/那是一辆小汽车吗?
-Yes, it is./ No, it isn't. 是的,它是。/不,它不是。
-What's this/ that? 这/那是什么?
-It's a ruler. 这/那是一把尺子。

3 陈述在一起的两样东西时,应先说 this,后说 that。如:
This is a book. That is a pen. 这是一本书,那是一枝钢笔。
指“人”

1 在交际中介绍某人时,用 this 或 that,而不用 it。如:
This is Li Mei. That is Han Ying.

这位是李梅,那位是韩英。
2 回答在特殊疑问句中作主语指“人”的 this 或 that 时,答语仍用 this 或 that,不用 it。如:
-Who's this/ that? 这/那位是谁?
-This/ That is Miss Gao. 这/那位是高小姐。

3 电话用语中的“我”与“你”,不用 I 和 you, 而用 this 和 that,此时的 this, that 可以用 it 代替。 如:
-Hello, is that/ it Wei Hua? 喂,你是魏华吗?
-No, this/ it is Lucy. 不是,我是露茜。

4 指性别不明的婴儿、身份不明的人时,用 it 取代 this 和 that。如:
-Who's it? 是谁? -It's me. 是我。
缩略形式
this is 没有缩略形式,that is, it is 可分别缩写为 that's, it's。 如:
This is an egg. 这是一只鸡蛋。(不可写成 This's an egg.)That is/ That's a map. 那是一张地图。
It is/ It's an apple. 这是一个苹果。


this,that,these,those的用法区别

1. 近指代词和远指代词
this(包括其复数形式 these),是近指代词。指时间或空间上
较近的人及事物。that(包括其复数形式 those),是远指代词。
指时间或空间上较远的人及事物。
This is Mr Smith and that is Mr Black.
这位是史密斯先生,那位是布莱克先生。
These are pears and those are apples.
这些是梨,那些是苹果。

2. that和those用来代替前面说过的名词。
The weather in Shanghai is not so cold as that in Beijing.
上海的天气没像北京那么冷。
The radios made in Tianjin are as good as those made in Shanghai.
天津产的收音机和上海产的收音机一样好。
3. 在打电话时,this指我,that指你。
Who's that speaking? 你是谁?
This is Mary speaking. 我是玛丽。
注意:当 this和 that表示程度时,是副词。
例如:
Is the box that heavy?
箱子真的那么重吗?
 

         this和that的区别
 差不多所有的同学在年幼时代开始学英语的时候,老师就开始教“This is…”, “That is…”的句型,然后告诉大家this是近指,that是远指。

比如 This is my book.  That is your pencil.  
但是事实上用起这两个词来就不是这么容易了,因为我们几乎不说不写不用这些低级的句子。下面就从两方面谈谈这两个词的实际用法。  
其实要牢牢记住的是, “近指” 和 “远指” 的确是this和that的最基本的概念。

         口语和书面语的差别;   
看下面的例子:

例一
 I watched a film with my friend yesterday.

A: Yes, that was really boring.!

例二
He is arbitrary and hubristic.  This leads to his failure in the business.

口语和书面语最大的差别就是:说过的话随风而散,但写过的字总是有迹可寻。所以口语中无论是用this还是that指代上文说过的东东, 在书面语里一律都用this来指代上文,因为无论何时需要去看这个指代的内容,我们都可以回头找到。
 {其实并不绝对是口语和书面语的差别,只是为了提醒大家书面语里this和that的用法而这么区分的。在口语里也能找到这样的对比,比如我们在餐桌上吃一块牛排,你一边嚼一边夸耀,“This is really delicious!”(肉还没咽下去,而且面前的盘子里也摆着牛排,所以近指)但是如果你吃完了牛排开始喝汤了,但是你还恋恋不舍回味牛排的味道,这时候就该说, “That was really delicious!” (牛排已经没了,看不见了,远指。而且注意时态的变化)
2.  空间距离到情感距离
在真正的对话情景中,this 和that很少用来指空间距离上的远近,而是人的感情上的远近。也就是英语里非常流行的所谓metaphorical view(从暗喻的视觉来表达)。讨厌的东西或者人,你希望跟他们保持距离,这时候就用that;而你喜欢的人或者东西,你希望跟他们拉近关系,这时候就用that。还是看具体的例子:
*  Don’t tell me about that man! He is really disgusting! (别跟我讲那个男人的事情,他太令人恶心了!

l       Tell me something about this handsome young guy! (跟我说说那个帅小伙的事情吧!)  

比较这两个句子用在不同的情形里: Who’s that? (黑暗中的一个很大的别墅,一个女的被楼下传来的声音吓得…)

l        Who’s this? (一个handsome的lawyer坐在自己的办公室忙着工作,听见有人敲门,头也不抬的问了一句)
  总结一下,大家写作文指代上文内容,记得用this!
 附:偶原先是用英文写的,还是英文写的比较顺手一些,呵呵。
 The usage of ‘this’ and ‘that’ as demonstratives in English often is taken for granted as the same in Chinese.  Because they look so ‘trivial’, they are often ignored in language teaching.  Learners normally begin their English learning with sentences like ‘This is my pen’ and ‘That is his pen’ to show the physical distance between ‘this’ and ‘that’.  It may be almost all learners get from teaching.  However, learners often find it difficult in practicing them.  Why do native speakers say ‘That is true’ but not ‘this is true’, while in writing sentences like ‘This is true’ is more likely to be anticipated to refer what has been mentioned in the above paragraph?  Learners may try to find answers from their own language but contrarily they often get more twisted.
 However, if extending the basic meaning of ‘this’ refers to things close to the speaker while ‘that’ means things distant into metaphorical view, the different choice of ‘this’ and ‘that’ in spoken and written language will show itself.  Words die out when the speaker finish them, so there appears the distance.  But words are still there in the paragraph and readers can still shift back to read them, so there is the closeness.% w$ d' u5 q  K# N# O8 \
 The similar situation can be found in dinner.  If the speaker is still chewing something, he will rather say ‘this tastes delicious’, but say ‘that tasted delicious’ after the food being swallowed.  The former is closer because the speaker can feel the food in his month while the latter is distant because the food has disappeared.'    Now it is also not hard to understand why people say ‘Who’s that?’ while they hear some strange noise in the darkness but ‘Who’s this?’ on hearing the knock on the door.  Distance and closeness can also be implied in people’s feeling while they like or dislike something or somebody.  Emotional distance and closeness can be shown as well as physical distance and closeness at the same time.  If something or someone makes people disgusted, they will certainly show their dislike by keeping a distance from it or the person.  Otherwise they will like to show their fondness by getting closer to them.  So people usually say ‘Don’t tell me about that man!  He is disgusting!’ but say ‘Tell me about this handsome young guy!’ to show their fondness, interest or acceptance.
 
 Moreover, it may draw both teachers and learners attention that there is a common use in native speakers while they are telling a story or a joke by introducing ‘there was this woman’ to show the closeness, which can be taught to learners as a typical grammatical feature in spoken language.,

 

 

 

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