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英语练功房

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2012-05-09 07:53:28|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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导读:根据一项新调查,全世界有近15?人相信世界末日将在自己有生之年到来,10?人认为玛雅日历预示着世界将在2012年终结。

Nearly 15 percent of people worldwide believe the world will end during their lifetime and 10 percent think the Mayan calendar could signify it will happen in 2012, according to a new poll.

根据一项新调查,全世界有近15%的人相信世界末日将在自己有生之年到来,10%的人认为玛雅日历预示着世界将在2012年终结。

 

The end of the Mayan calendar, which spans about 5,125 years, on December 21, 2012 has sparked interpretations and suggestions that it marks the end of the world.

跨越5125年的玛雅日历终止于20121221,这引发了各种关于世界末日的解读和联想。

 

 

"Whether they think it will come to an end through the hands of God, or a natural disaster or a political event, whatever the reason, one in seven thinks the end of the world is coming," said Keren Gottfried, research manager at Ipsos Global Public Affairs which conducted the poll for Reuters.

益普索全球公共事务部为路透社开展了这一调查。该部门的调研主管凯伦?戈特弗里德说:“或是认为世界会在上帝手里终结,或是认为世界将因自然灾害或政治事件毁灭,不论是何种原因,全球有七分之一的人认为世界末日即将来临。”

 

 

"Perhaps it is because of the media attention coming from one interpretation of the Mayan prophecy that states the world `ends` in our calendar year 2012," Gottfried said, adding that some Mayan scholars have disputed the interpretation.

戈特弗里德说:“也许是因为媒体高度关注对玛雅预言的一种解读,认为世界将在公历2012年‘终结’。”她补充说,一些玛雅学者对这种解读提出了质疑。

 

51. Language is a city, to the building of _____ every human being brought a stone.

(A) which                   (B) that                      (C) it                    (D) this

.52 _____ of the two books holds the opinion that the danger of nuclear war is increasing.

(A) None                    (B) Either                   (C) Both                    (D) Neither

53. Government cannot operate effectively _____ it is free from such interference.

(A) so long as            (B) so that            (C) unless             (D) because

54. We welcome rain, but a (an) _____ large amount of rainfall will cause floods.

(A) extensively                 (B) extremely              (C) specially               (D) constantly

55. Beethoven is my favorite musician. I regard him as _____ other musicians.

(A) superior to                 (B) more superior than     (C) more superior to   (D) superior than

26. I hope that you'll be more careful in typing the letter. Don't _____ anything.

(A) withdraw              (B) omit                     (C) reduce            (D) lead

27. We don't need air conditioning, _____.

(A) nor can we afford it                     (C) neither can afford it

(B) and nor we can afford it               (D) and we can neither afford it

28. She is a very _____ secretary: she never forgets anything or makes a mistake.

(A) anxious                 (B) effective               (C) adequate              (D) efficient

29. The Browns ______ here, but not any more.

(A) were used to living      (B) had lived              (C) used to live           (D) had been living

30. I'll accept any job _____ I don't have to get up early.

(A) lest                 (B) as long as             (C) in case            (D) though

 

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  Lead deposits, which accumulated in soil and snow during the 1960s and 70s, were primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissions originating in the United States. In the twenty years that the Clean Air Act has mandated unleaded gas use in the United States, the lead accumulation worldwide has decreased significantly.

  A study published recently in the journal Nature shows that air-borne leaded gas emissions from the United States were the leading contributor to the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland. The new study is a result of the continued research led by Dr. Charles Boutron, an expert on the impact of heavy metals on the environment at the National Center for Scientific Research in France. A study by Dr. Boutron published in 1991 showed that lead levels in arctic (北极的) snow were declining.

  In his new study, Dr. Boutron found the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasoline used in the United States were different from the ratios of European, Asian and Canadian gasolines and thus enabled scientists to differentiate (区分) the lead sources. The dominant lead ratio found in Greenland snow matched that found in gasoline from the United States.

  In a study published in the journal Ambio, scientists found that lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline.

  Many scientists had believed that the lead would stay in soil and snow for a longer period.

  The authors of the Ambio study examined samples of the upper layers of soil taken from the same sites of 30 forest floors in New England, New York and Pennsylvania in 1980 and in 1990. The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected.

  Scientists say both studies demonstrate that certain parts of the ecosystem (生态系统) respond rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollution, but that these findings should not be used as a license to pollute.

  21. The study published in the journal Nature indicates that ________.

  A) the Clean Air Act has not produced the desired results

  B) lead deposits in arctic snow are on the increase

  C) lead will stay in soil and snow longer than expected

  D) the US is the major source of lead pollution in arctic snow

  22. Lead accumulation worldwide decreased significantly after the use of unleaded gas in the US ________.

  A) was discouraged

  B) was enforced by law

  C) was prohibited by law

  D) was introduced

  23. How did scientists discover the source of lead pollution in Greenland?

  A) By analyzing the data published in journals like Nature and Ambio.

  B) By observing the lead accumulations in different parts of the arctic area.

  C) By studying the chemical elements of soil and snow in Northeastern America.

  D) By comparing the chemical compositions of leaded gasoline used in various countries.

  24. The authors of the Ambio study have found that ________.

  A) forests get rid of lead pollution faster than expected

  B) lead accumulations in forests are more difficult to deal with

  C) lead deposits are widely distributed in the forests of the US

  D) the upper layers of soil in forests are easily polluted by lead emissions

  25. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that scientists ________.

  A) are puzzled by the mystery of forest pollution

  B) feel relieved by the use of unleaded gasoline

  C) still consider lead pollution a problem

D) lack sufficient means to combat lead pollution

 

26. B   27. A   28. D29. C 30. B

这是一篇典型报刊写法的文章,文章开头首先点出全篇论述的主题,把核心思想和关键信息和盘托出。第一段提供的信息主要有两点,一是六七十年代的铅沉积的主要源头是美国(primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissionsoriginating in the United States),二是无铅汽油在美国推广后,全球范围内的铅沉积减少幅度很大(the lead accumulation worldwide has decreasedsignificantly)。以后段落的内容全部围绕这两个信息点展开说明。

  第二段是对第一段所提供的两点信息进行具体地解释,其中包括信息来源(第一个信息源于《自然》杂志),研究机构(National Center for Scientific Research in France),研究者(Dr. Charles Boutron),以及信息细节(研究对象是格陵兰的雪);第二个信息源于Boutron1991年发表的另一项研究成果。

  第三段是对第一个信息的说明,指出之所以把格陵兰的雪中沉积的铅归因于美国的含铅汽油,是因为美国与其他地区所使用的汽油成分比率不同,这里的雪中铅的比率大部分符合美国汽油特点。

  接下来的三个段落是对第二个信息的说明。首先是信息来源(《Ambio》杂志)和信息内容(lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States haddecreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline),其次是研究结果发表之前许多科学家们的设想(Many scientists had believed that……),最后是研究主要过程(examinedsamples of the upper layers of soil taken from the same sites of 30 forestfloors in New England, New York and Pennsylvania)。

  最后一段总结了这两项研究成果的现实意义,指出其不应成为对污染不加控制的理由(should not be used as a license to pollute)。

  21. D

  题目问《Nature》杂志上发表的研究显示……

  AClean Air Act法案没有产生预期的效果。

  B,北极雪铅沉积在持续增加。

  C,铅在雪和土壤中的停留时间会比预想的时间长。

  D,北极雪铅污染的元凶是美国。

  题目里的关键信息是nature杂志,在第二段提到了这家杂志:Astudy published recently in the journal Nature shows that……这句话可以说和题目几乎一样,那么该句that后面的宾语从句也就是本题的答案所在。

  Air-borneleaded gas emissions from the United Stateswere the leading contributor to the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland.

  主语的核心是gas emissions,也就是铅的散播。Air-borne leaded,表明铅是通过空气传播的。From the United States说明铅散播的来源:美国。核心谓语是Were the leading contributor,表明“是主要贡献者”。To the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland表明贡献的对象为“格陵兰雪铅的高度集中”。合起来的意思就是源头在美国的铅散播是格陵兰雪铅高度集中的主因。

  四个选项中D的说法与此完全一致,可以放心选D

  22. D

  题目问无铅汽油的使用在美国被……后,世界范围内的铅沉积显著减少。

  A,被妨碍之后。

  B,在法律强行施行之后。

  C,被法律禁止以后。

  D,被引进以后。

  题目里的关键信息是无铅汽油,需要在文中寻找与无铅汽油以及铅沉积下降有关的内容。可以发现前三大段都没有出现无铅汽油的内容,直到第四段才第一次有了unleaded这个词。句子为:scientists found that lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline,大意是美国东北部土壤中的铅含量水平在无铅汽油引进后显著下降。这句话里的markedly和题目中的significantly属于同义词,decreased在原文和题目中都有,同时选项D中的introduced和原文中的introduction相照应,可以判断本题选D

  23. D

  题目问科学家们如何发现格陵兰岛的铅污染源。

  A,通过分析发表在NatureAmbio等杂志上的数据。

  B,通过观察北极不同地区的铅沉积量。

  C,通过研究美国东北部的土壤和积雪中的化学元素。

  D,通过对比不同国家含铅汽油的化学成分。

  关于格陵兰岛的铅污染源问题是第三段论述的内容。第三段一共两句话,第一句是一个长句,Dr. Boutron found the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasoline used in the United States were different from the ratios of European, Asian and Canadian gasolines and thus enabled scientists to differentiate the lead sources,这一句话的结构是由and连接的递进关系的两个主谓结构。第一个主谓结构的内容是一位博士的发现:在美国使用的汽油中的不同铅的比率和其他地方的不同;第二个主谓结构是这一发现的所带来的成果:可以使科学家们区分铅的来源。

  第二句叙述的是第一句所表达内容所产生的结果:The dominant lead ratio found in Greenland snow matched that found in gasoline from the United States,科学家们发现在格陵兰积雪中的铅比率与美国汽油中的一致。由此就可以推断,格陵兰岛的铅污染源是美国。这一推理过程十分清晰,起决定作用的是铅比率的发现。

  关于A,阅读文章可知,发表在杂志上的报告本身揭示了铅的污染源,而不是通过研究报告然后推断出污染源。所以A的说法错误。

  B的说法是第二段最后一句的内容:lead levels in arctic snow were declining,这是博士早前研究的成果,意思是北极地区的含铅水平在下降。这和铅污染源没有关系。

  C 的说法和第四段的内容有关,这一段的大意是在无铅汽油引入以后,美国东北部土壤中的铅含量显著下降。如此说来,的确是对美国东北部的土壤内的化学成分进行 过研究,但没有提到也对积雪进行了研究,因此C的说法不能算正确。另外,铅污染源研究的核心在于铅比率的发现,土壤铅含量的下降只是铅污染源理论的一个反 面证明而已。

  D的说法恰好是文章第三段所说明的内容,是正确的。

  24. A

  题目问该项研究的作者发现了什么。

  A,森林消解污染的速度快于预计。

  B,森林里的铅沉积更不易处理。

  C,铅沉积普遍分布在美国的森林之中。

  D,森林地区的上层土壤易受铅排放的污染。

  题目中的关键信息显然是Ambio study,可以发现四五六这三段描述的是有关Ambio study的内容。第四段介绍了study的内容,lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline,这句话比较容易理解,大意是引入无铅汽油后,美国东北部土壤中的铅含量显著下降。四个选项都和森林有关,而这句话没有提到森林,所以答案和此句关系不大。

  第五段的意思是科学家们以为铅会在土壤和积雪中停留更长的时间。需要注意的是助动词had,它表示“曾经相信”,宾语从句是科学家在该研究完成之前的想法,而不是该项研究所得出的结论。可以看到这一句也和四个选项无关。

  第六段一共两句话,第一句陈述了一个事实,即该项研究的作者们检查了不同时期美国几个州的森林土壤。第二句是研究的结论:The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected,森林环境处理和消解铅沉积的速度比科学家们预计的要快。这句话和A的说法正好契合,本题选择A

  B也是考查对第二句的理解,不过正好和句意相反。CD都与第一句有关,但第一句是研究的内容,而不是研究的结果,所以CD都不对。

  25. C

  题目问从最后一段可以推断出,科学家们……

  A,科学家们对森林污染的成因迷惑不解。

  B,科学家们因无铅汽油得到使用而如释重负。

  C,科学家们认为铅污染依然是一个难题。

  D,科学家们缺少足够的办法来应付铅污染。

  最后一段仅有一句话,也不算长,一个小段出一道题,可见这个小段可能会造成一定的理解困难。

  这句话的核心部分是两个由that引导的宾语从句,分别是certain parts of the ecosystem respond rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollutionthese findings should not be used as a license to pollute。第一句可以直译为“生态系统的某些部分对大气污染的下降反应迅速”,这里的大气污染应该是指铅排放,大气污染下降的原因是无铅汽油的使用。这一句含义应该是说无铅汽油使用后,因环境(如森林)自行排解污染的能力很强,所以可以迅速消除污染。

  第二句直译为“这些发现不应作为污染的通行证”,这些发现主要是指污染减少后,环境可以迅速排解污染。结合上一句的含义,可以判断这句话的潜台词是“不能因为环境可以迅速排解污染就肆意排放污染”。

  A和文意不符,B正好和最后一段的第二个宾语从句意思相反。这两个选项可以排除。

  CD都以消极态度看待铅污染问题,符合第二个宾语从句的基调。不过,从文中只能大致看出科学家们对污染问题的忧虑态度,至于是否有办法应付铅污染,从文中无法做出判断。所以这道题应该选择C

 

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