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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

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0530  

2012-05-30 07:54:37|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Just five one-hundredths of an inch thick, light golden in color and with a perfect “saddle curl,” the Lay’s potato chip seems an unlikely weapon for global domination. But its maker. Frito-Lay. Thinks otherwise. “Potato chips are a snack food for the world,” said Salman Amin, the company’s head of global marketing. Amin believes there is no corner of the world that can resist the charms of a Frito-Lay potato chip.
  Frito-Lay is the biggest snack maker in America, owned by PepsiCo. And accounts for over half of the parent company’s $3 billion annual profits. But the U.S. snack food market is largely saturated, and to grow, the company has to look overseas.
  Its strategy rests on two beliefs: first a global product offers economies of scale with which local brands cannot compete. And second, consumers in the 21st century are drawn to “global” as a concept. “Global” does not mean products that are consciously identified as American, but ones than consumes-especially young people-see as part of a modem, innovative (创新的) world in which people are linked across cultures by shared beliefs and tastes. Potato chips are an American invention, but most Chinese, for instance, do not know than Frito-Lay is an American company. Instead, Riskey, the company’s research and development head, would hope they associate the brand with the new world of global communications and business.
  With brand perception a crucial factor, Riskey ordered a redesign of the Frito-Lay logo (标识). The logo, along with the company’s long-held marketing image of the “irresistibility” of its chips, would help facilitate the company’s global expansion.
  The executives acknowledge that they try to swing national eating habits to a food created in America, but they deny that amounts to economic imperialism. Rater, they see Frito-Lay as spreading the benefits of free enterprise across the world. “We’re making products in those countries, we’re adapting them to the tastes of those countries, building businesses and employing people and changing lives,” said Steve Reinemund, PepsiCo’s chief executive.
  21. It is the belief of Frito-Lay’s head of global marking that ________.
  A) potato chips can hardly be used as a weapon to dominate the world market
  B) their company must find new ways to promote domestic sales
  C) the light golden color enhances the charm of their company’s potato chips
  D) people the world over enjoy eating their company’s potato chips
  22. What do we learn about Frito-Lay from Paragraph 2?
  A) Its products use to be popular among overseas consumers.
  B) Its expansion has caused fierce competition in the snack marker.
  C) It gives half of its annual profits to its parent company.
  D) It needs to turn to the word market for development.
  23. One of the assumptions on which Frito-Lay bases its development strategy is that ________.
  A) consumers worldwide today are attracted by global brands
  B) local brands cannot compete successfully with American brands
  C) products suiting Chinese consumers’ needs bring more profits
  D) products identified as American will have promising market value
  24. Why did Riskey have the Frito-Lay logo redesigned?
  A) To suit changing tastes of young consumers.
  B) To promote the company’s strategy of globalization.
  C) To change the company’s long-held marketing image.
  D) To compete with other American chip producers.
  25. Frito-Lay’s executives claim that the promoting of American food in the international market ________.
  A) won’t affect the eating habits of the local people
  B) will lead to economic imperialism
  C) will be in the interest of the local people
  D) won’t spoil the taste of their chips
46                                                   A love marriage, however, does not necessarily ________ much sharing of interests and responsibilities.

     A) take over                                    B) result in

     C) hold on                                      D) keep to

47  The ability to store knowledge makes computers different form every other machine _______ invented.

     A) ever                                            B) thus

     C) yet                                             D) as

48  I’m not sure whether I can gain any profit from the investment, so I can’t make a(n) ______ promise to help you.

     A) exact                                          B) defined

     C) definite                                       D) sure

49  I have kept that portrait ____________ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.

     A) which                                         B) where

     C) whether                                      D) when

50  The sports meet, originally due to be held last Friday, was finally _______ because of the bad weather.

     A) set off                                        B) broken off

     C) worn off                                     D) called off

 

 

In communities north of Denver, residents are pitching in to help teachers and administrators as the Vrain school District tries to solve a $13.8 million budget shortage blamed on mismanagement. “We’re worried about our teachers and principals, and we really don’t want to lose them because of this,” one parent sail. “If we can help ease their financial burden, we will. “
  Teachers are grateful, but know it may be years before the district is solvent (有综合能力的). They feel really good about the parent support, but they realize it’s impossible for then to solve this problem.
  The 22,000-student district discovered the shortage last month. “It’s extraordinary. Nobody would have imagined something happening like this at this level,” said State Treasurer Mike Coffman.
  Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state emergency plan freeing yp a $9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll (工资单) to be met for 2,700 teachers and staff in time for the holidays.
  District officials also took $1.7 million from student-activity accounts its 38 schools.
  At Coffman’s request, the District Attorney has begun investigating the district’s finances. Coffman says he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortage until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.
  In Frederick, students’ parents are buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utilities to keep first-year teachers and principals in their jobs.
  Some $36,000 has been raised in donations from Safeway. A Chevrolet dealership donated $10,000 and forgave the district’s $10,750 bill for renting the driver educating cars. IBM contributed 4,500 packs of paper.
  “We employ thousands of people in this community,” said Mitch Carson, a hospital chief executive, who helped raise funds. “We have children in the school, and we see how they could be affected.”
  At Creek High School, three students started a website that displays newspaper articles, district information and an email forum (论坛) “Rumors about what’s happening to the district are moving at lighting speed,” said a student. “We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead.”
  26. What has happened to the Vrain School District?
  A) A huge financial problem has arisen.
  B) Many schools there are mismanaged.
  C) Lots of teachers in the district are planning to quit.
  D) Many administrative personnel have been laid off.
  27. How did the residents in the Vrain School District respond to the budget shortage?
  A) They felt somewhat helpless about it.
  B) They accused those responsible for it.
  C) They pooled their efforts to help solve it.
  D) They demanded a through investigation.
  28. In the view of State Treasurer Mike Coffman, the educational budget shortage is ________.
  A) unavoidable
  B) unthinkable
  C) insolvable
  D) irreversible
  29. Why did Coffman request an investigation?
  A) To see if there was a deliberate cover-up of the problem.
  B) To find out the extent of the consequences of the case.
  C) To make sure that the school principals were innocent.
  D) To stop the voters approving the $212 million bong issue.
  30. Three high school students started a website in order to ________.
  A) attract greater public attention to their needs
  B) appeal to the public for contributions and donations
  C) expose officials who neglected their duties
  D) keep people properly informed of the crisis

 

 

 

46. B 47. A 48. C 49. B 50. D


  这篇短文讲述的是学校资金短缺事件。全文共十个小段,第一段从丹佛某社区发起运动说起,交代了事件基本信息:1380万美元的预算短缺,而后引用某位学生父母对学校表示物质支持的原话(we can help ease their financial burden, we will)。这个段落有这样一个特点,即事件本身只是在句中附带提到,叙述的重点在于社区对与此事相关的学校、教师的支持。这也暗示了后文的叙述方向不会是对资金短缺事件的原委的叙述,而是各方对此事的反应。从全文来看,包括社区、教师、官方、企业以及学生的反应。
  接下来的第二段叙述了教师们对社区支持的反应(grateful),而后用教师们的想法传达出资金短缺事件的解决难度(impossible for then to solve this problem,社区支持不可能解决问题)。
  下一段进一步透露出事件的其他信息:发现时间(last month),并交代了州官员的反应:惊诧(Nobody would have imagined something happening like this at this level)。下三小段继续叙述官方的进一步行动:为教师工资提供贷款(9.8 million loan that enabled the payroll),从学生活动资金帐户中提出170万美元(officials also took $1.7 million),调查该地区财务(begun investigating the district’s finances)。
  最后的四段分别交代了学生父母、企业和学生们的反应。父母们为学校购买日常教学器具(buying classroom supplies and offering to pay for groceries and utilities),企业捐助,如一家雪佛兰经销商捐助一万美元,同时免除校车租金(A Chevrolet dealership donated $10,000 and forgave the district’s $10,750 bill),IBM捐助了实物(4,500 packs of paper)。之后的一段简单解释了募捐的原因。最后一段是学生们的行动:建立网站随时发布该事件的进展情况(We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead.)。
  26. A
  题目问Vrain校区发生了什么事情。从第一段可知,Vrain校区发生了资金短缺($13.8 million budget shortage),而通读全篇后可知,这一难题的影响非常严重。
  A,发生了严重的财务困难。资金短缺(budget shortage)也就是财务困难,可以选A
  B,那里许多学校管理不善。此选项考查对the Vrain school District tries to solve a $13.8 million budget shortage blamed on mismanagement一句的理解。前半句的理解应该不成问题,意思是该校区力图解决一个1380万的预算缺口。后面的blamed on mismanagement是理解的关键,blamed是个被动语态,这里省略了is,而这个句子的完整形式应该是个which引导的从句:shortage which is blamed on mismanagementBlamed sth on sth 是把某事物的错误归因于另一事物,在句中就是预算短缺的原因被归咎于管理不善。这样的话,管理不善的对象就是预算而不是学校。
  C,该校区的许多教师计划离职。文中引用了一位学生家长的话:we really don’t want to lose them because of this,表达了人们对预算短缺可能导致教师离去的后果。但文中没有指出教师是否计划(planning)离职,或者是否有很多many)教师有此想法。
  D,许多管理人员遭到解雇。文中没有相关叙述。
  27. C
  题目问这个校区的居民对预算短缺如何反应。
  A,他们对此事有些爱莫能助。
  B,他们谴责此事的罪魁祸首们。
  C,他们为解决此事共同出力。
  D,他们要求彻查此事。
  文章开头一句话即是叙述居民们如何努力帮助教师与学校官员们:residents are pitching in to help teachers and administratorsPitch in词组是努力投入的意思,可见居民们对此事十分重视,力争帮助学校走出难关。C的叙述符合这个意思,而A的叙述与C的意思恰好相反,可以排除。至于B,从全篇来看,对居民们的描写均为始终是如何帮助学校,没有提到谴责谁的问题,也没有要求彻查此事——要求调查此事的是CoffmanAt Coffman’s request——Coffman的要求下——the District Attorney has begun investigating the district’s finances),而他是一位官员,不是该地居民。
  28. B
  题目问在Mike Coffman看来,教育预算短缺是……
  A,不可避免的。
  B,不可想象的。
  C,无法解决的。
  D,不能取消的。
  文章讲到Coffman的地方一共三处,第一次是引用了他对预算短缺事件的评论:It’s extraordinary. Nobody would have imagined something happening like this at this level。意思是这太不寻常了。谁也想不到会发生这样的事,这种程度的事。第二次是他拟定了一份紧急贷款方案(Coffman and district officials last week agreed on a state emergency plan),第三次是他要求调查地区财政(At Coffman’s request, the District Attorney has begun investigating the district’s finances)。
  从本题的题意及四个选项来看,应该考查的是对第一处——也就是他的发言的理解。Coffman的发言首先指出此事的extraordinary,不同寻常;而后表示了惊讶——谁也想不到会发生这样的事,这种程度的事。他对此事的态度大体上是不可思议。这样AD明显不对,B的说法正确,至于C,引言中无法体现出来,而结合后面二处的描写,也没有发现无法解决的迹象,反倒是紧急贷款和调查财政等雷厉风行的行事态度显示出解决此事的决心。因为C的说法也不正确。
  29. A
  题目问Coffman为什么要求展开调查。
  文中讲述Coffman要求调查此案是在第六段,除此外再无段落出现相关叙述,因此只要完全理解这一段的意思就可以做出正确的解答。
  At Coffman’s request, the District Attorney has begun investigating the district’s finances. Coffman says he wants to know whether district officials hid the budget shortage until after the November election, when voters approved a $212 million bond issue for schools.
  这一段共2句话。第一句指出Coffman要求调查地区财务。第二句是一个长句,主结构是Coffman says ……这样一个主谓宾结构。宾语从句中依然嵌套一个宾语从句he wants to know whether……后面内容的意思是是否地区官员掩盖了预算短缺问题,直到十一月投票发生以后……”后半句是一个非限制性定语从句,when指代的是十一月投票,意思是在十一月投票中,投票者通过了二亿一千二百万美元的学校公债事项。这样,Coffman所怀疑的就是地区官员有可能在十一月投票中掩盖了预算短缺问题,以使公债事项得以通过。
  A,看是否有故意掩盖问题的行为。这一说法与文意一致。
  B,看一看此事的后果严重到什么程度。这个说法没有着落点。
  C,确定学校官员是无辜的。文章没有提到类似的内容。
  D,阻止选民通过二亿一千二百万美元的公债事项。理解文意可知,这一公债事项早在十一月投票就已经通过,现在不可能再去阻止。
  30. D
  题目问三家高中的学生开设了一家网站,其目的是什么。
  A,吸引更多的公共关注,以为己用。
  B,呼吁公众捐献物资。
  C,揭露玩忽职守的官员们。
  D,使人们随时得知此次危机事件的真实进展。
  文章提到学生建设网站之事是在最后一段。At Creek High School, three students started a website that displays newspaper articles, district information and an email forum (论坛) “Rumors about what’s happening to the district are moving at lighting speed,” said a student. “We wanted to know the truth, and spread that around instead.”
  第一句叙述了学生们建设网站的事实,第二句引用了学生们的原话,解释了建设网站的原因。前一句意思是关于这个地区发生了什么的谣言传得向闪电一样快,后一句的意思是我们想去了解真相,然后把真相传播出去。注意后一句里面使用的时态:wanted用的是一般过去时,表示这一想法是建设网站之初的想法,而不是现在的想法,这样就可推断出这一想法就是建站的目的。四个选项中只有D符合这个意思。

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