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2012-05-14 09:28:35|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1. 大学宿舍是否要接通因特网——Should College Dormitories Have the Internet?

1. 许多大学宿舍都接通了因特网

2. 学校宿舍接通因特网的利与弊

3. 我的看法

Should College Dormitories Have the Internet?

With the development of technology and society, the Internet plays an increasingly important role in our daily life. People are relying more on the Internet at work, so do college students. And many colleges have already offered their students’ access to the Internet in their dormitories, which brings convenience to the study of students, but also generates problems.

On the one hand, it is doubtless that if college dormitories have the Internet, students will have more access to knowledge. What’s more, with the Internet, students can keep a keen contact with the outside world and broaden their horizon, so that they would not become a nerd.

On the other hand, it is sure that nothing in this world is absolutely positive. With the Internet installed in dormitories, there would be negative influences. The first and worst is that it will affect the study of students. It is not fresh news that there are students addicted to the Internet, which results in poor performance at schools.

In my opinion, college dormitories should have the Internet, because in general, there are more positive influences than negative ones, and we should not abandon anything helpful to our students just for its minor shortcoming.

 

Unit 2 Cloning-Reading

  CLONING: WHERE IS IT LEADING US?

  Cloning has always been with us and is here to stay. It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal or plant. It happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. It also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. The fact is that these are both examples of natural clones.

  Cloning has two major uses. Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. Cloning plants is straightforward while cloning animals is very complicated. It is a difficult task to undertake. Many attempts to clone mammals failed. But at last the determination and patience of the scientists paid off in 1996 with a breakthrough - the cloning of Dolly the sheep. The procedure works like this:

  On the one hand, the whole scientific world followed the progress of the first successful clone, Dolly the sheep. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill. Cloning scientists were cast down to find that Dolly's illnesses were more appropriate to a much older animal. Altogether Dolly lived six and a half years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. Sadly the same arbitrary fate affected other species, such as cloned mice. The questions that concerned all scientists were: "Would this be a major difficulty for all cloned animals? Would it happen forever? Could it be solved if corrections were made in their research procedure?"

  On the other hand, Dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. It became controversial. It suddenly opened everybody's eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses and even to produce human beings.

  Although at present human egg cells and embryos needed for cloning research are difficult to obtain, newspapers wrote of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves to attain their ambitions. Religious leaders also raised moral questions. Governments became nervous and more conservative. Some began to reform their legal systems and forbade research into human cloning, but other countries like China and the UK, continued to accumulate evidence of the abundant medical aid that cloning could provide. However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us.

  THE RETURN OF THE DINOSAURS?

  The possibility of cloning fierce and extinct wild animals has always excited film makers. And they are not the only ones! The popularity of films such as Jurassic Park, in which a scientist clones several kinds of extinct dinosaurs, proves how the idea struck a mixture of fear and excitement into people's hearts. But in fact we are a long way from being able to clone extinct animals. Scientists are still experimenting with cloning mammals. This is because the cloning of mammals is still a new science and its story only began seriously in the 1950s as this list shows:

  1950s cloning of frogs                                                1996 first clone of a mammal: Dolly the sheep

  1970s research using the embryos of mice             2000 cow gave birth to a bison

  1979 work on embryos of sheep and mice              2001 China's first cloned twin calves

  1981 first experimental clones of mice                     2002 first cloned cats

  1983 first experimental clones of cows                     2005 first cloned dog

  

  From time to time people suggest that extinct animals like dinosaurs, can possibly be brought back to life through cloning. Unfortunately, with what we know now, this is either impossible or unsuitable. There are many reasons.

  ◎ The initial requirement is that you need perfect DNA (which gives information for how cells

  are to grow).

  ◎ All efforts of cloning an animal will be in vain if there is not enough diversity in the group to overcome illnesses. Diversity in a group means

  having animals with their genes arranged in different ways. The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals may die,

  but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. The great drawback to cloning a group of

  animals is that they would all have the same arrangement of genes and so might die of the same illness. Then none of them would be left to

  continue the species.

  ◎ It would be unfair to clone any extinct animals if they were to live in a zoo. A suitable habitat would be needed for them to lead a natural life.

  Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. Actually, dinosaurs disappeared 65,000,000 years ago. So the chance of dinosaurs ever returning to the earth is merely a dream.

  |||选修8 Unit 3 Inventors and inventions-Reading

  THE PROBLEM OF THE SNAKES

  When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. "There are some snakes in our courtyard," she told me. "Snakes come near the house now and then, and they seem to have made【不定式完成式表动作在主句动作前】 their home here, not far from the walnut tree. Can you get rid of them please?" I felt very proud. Here was【倒装句】 a chance for .me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them. I knew my parents would not like me to hurt these living creatures!

  The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. A new approach was clearly needed. I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. Luckily these reptiles are small and that made the solution easier.

  Prepared with some research findings, I decided on three possible approaches: firstly, removing their habitat; secondly, attracting them into a trap using male or female perfume or food; and thirdly cooling them so that they would become sleepy and could be easily caught. I decided to use the last one. I bought an ice-cream maker which was made of stainless steel. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. I put the bowl into the fridge and waited for 24 hours. At the same time I prepared some ice-cubes.

  The next morning I got up early before the sun was hot. I placed the frozen bowl over the snakes' habitat and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool. Finally I covered the whole thing with a large bucket. Then I waited. After two hours I removed the bucket and the bowl. The snakes were less active but they were still too fast for me. They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. So I had to adjust my plan.

  For the second attempt I froze the bowl and the ice-cubes again but placed them over the snakes' habitat in the evening, as the temperature was starting to cool. Then as before, I covered the bowl with the bucket and left everything overnight. Early the next morning I returned to see the result. This time with great caution I bent down to examine the snakes and I found them very sleepy. But once picked up, they tried to bite me. As they were poisonous snakes, I clearly needed to improve my design again.

  My third attempt repeated the second procedure. The next morning I carried in my hand a small net used for catching fish. This was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. But monitored carefully, the snakes proved to be no trouble and all went according to plan. I collected the passive snakes and the next day we merrily released them all back into the wild.

  Pressed力劝,催促;催逼;敦促: by my friends and relations, I decided to seize the opportunity to get recognition for my successful idea by sending my invention to the patent office. Only after you have had that

  recognition can you【倒装句】 say that you are truly an inventor. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel新颖的;新奇的. In addition, no invention will get a patent if it is:

  ◎a discovery

  ◎a scientific idea or mathematical model

  ◎literature or art

  ◎a game or a business

  ◎a computer programme

  ◎a new animal or plant variety

Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everyone else's. There are a large number of patent examiners, too, whose only job is to examine whether your claim is valid or not. If it passes all the tests, your application for a patent will be published 18 months from the date you apply. So I have filled in the form and filed my patent application with the Patent Office. Now it's a matter of waiting and hoping. You'll know if I succeed by the size of my bank balance! Wish me luck!

 

 

 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

  Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847 in Scotland, but when he was young his family moved to Boston, USA. His mother was almost entirely deaf, so Alexander became interested in helping deaf people communicate and in deaf education. This interest led him to invent the microphone. He found that by pressing his lips against his mother's forehead, he could make his mother understand what he was saying.

  He believed that one should always be curious and his most famous saying was:

  "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. Every time you do you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before. Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. All really big discoveries are the result of thought."

  It was this exploring around problems and his dynamic spirit that led to his most famous invention - the telephone in 1876. Bell never set out to invent the telephone and what he was trying to design was a multiple telegraph. This original telegraph sent a message over distances using Morse code (a series of dots tapped out along a wire in a particular order). But only one message could go at a time. Bell wanted to improve it so that it could send several messages at the same time. He designed a machine that would separate different sound waves and allow different conversations to be held at the same time. But he found the problem difficult to solve. One day as he was experimenting with one end of a straw joined to a deaf man's ear drum and the other to a piece of smoked glass, Bell noticed that when he spoke into the ear, the straw drew sound waves on the glass. Suddenly he had a flash of inspiration. If sound waves could be reproduced in a moving electrical current, they could be sent along a wire. In searching to improve the telegraph,

  Bell had invented the first telephone!

  Bell was fully aware of the importance of his invention and wrote to his father:

  "The day is coming when telegraph wires will be laid on to houses just like water or gas – and friends will talk to each other without leaving home."

  The patent was given in 1876, but it was not until five days later that Bell sent his first telephone message to his assistant Watson. The words have now become famous:

  "Mr Watson - come here - I want to see you."

  Alexander Graham Bell was not a man to rest and he interested himself in many other areas of invention. He experimented with helicopter designs and flying machines. While searching for a kite strong enough to carry a man into the air, Bell experimented putting triangles together and discovered the tetrahedron shape. Being very stable, it has proved invaluable in the design of bridges.

  Bell was an inventor all his life. He made his first invention at eleven and his last at seventy- five. Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody's life.

 

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