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英语练功房

Challenge both your English & minds

 
 
 

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0425  

2012-04-25 07:48:50|  分类: Lectures |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Consumers are being confused and misled by the hodge-podge (大杂烩) of environmental claims made by household products, according to a green labeling study published by Consumers International Friday .

   Among the reports more outrageous (令人无法容忍的) findings-a German fertilizer described itself as earthworm friendly a brand of flour said it was non-polluting and a British toilet paper claimed to be environmentally friendlier

   The study was written and researched by Britain’s National Consumer Council (NCC) for lobby group Consumer International . It was funded by the German and Dutch governments and the European Commission .

While many good and useful claims are being made , it is clear there is a long way to go in ensuring shoppers are adequately informed about the environmental impact of products they buy,” said Consumers International director Anna Fielder .

The 10-country study surveyed product packaging in Britain . Western Europe , Scandinavia and the United States . It found that products sold in Germany and the United Kingdom made the most environmental claims on average .

The report focused on claims made by specific products , such as detergent (洗涤剂) insect sprays and by some garden products . It did not test the claims , but compared them to labeling guidelines set by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in September ,1999.

Researchers documented claims of environmental friendliness made by about 2,000 products and found many too vague or too misleading to meet ISO standards.

Many products had specially-designed labels to make them seem environmentally friendly , but in fact many of these symbols mean nothing ,” said report researcher Philip Page .

Laundry detergents made the most number of claims with 158. Household cleaners were second with 145 separate claims . while paints were third on our list with 73 .The high numbers show how very confusing it must be for consumers to sort the true from the misleading .” he said .

The ISO labeling standards ban vague or misleading claims on product packaging , because terms such as “environmentally friendly” and “non-polluting” cannot be verified . “ what we are now pushing for is to have multinational corporations meet the standards set by the ISO .” said Page.

 

31. According to the passage , the NCC found it outrageous that ______

A) all the products surveyed claim to meet ISO standards

B) the claims made by products are often unclear or deceiving

C) consumers would believe many of the manufactures’ claim

D) few products actually prove to be environment friendly

 

32. As indicated in this passage , with so many good claims , the consumers _____

A) are becoming more cautious about the products they are going to buy

B) are still not willing to pay more for products with green labeling

C) are becoming more aware of the effects different products have on the environment

D) still do not know the exact impact of different products on the environment

 

33. A study was carried out by Britain’s NCC to _______

A) find out how many claims made by products fail to meet environmental standards

B) inform the consumers of the environmental impact of the products they buy

C) examine claims made by products against ISO standards

D) revise the guidelines set by the International Standards Organization

 

34. What is one of the consequences caused by the many claims of household products ?

A) They are likely to lead to serious environmental problems

B) Consumers find it difficult to tell the true from the false

C) They could arouse widespread anger among consumer

D) Consumers will be tempted to buy products they don’t need

 

35. It can be inferred from the passage that the lobby group Consumer International wants to _______

A) make product labeling satisfy ISO requirements

B) see all household products meet environmental standards

C) warn consumers of the danger of so-called green products

D) verify the efforts of non-polluting products

 

1.B】这是一道推理题。题目问根据文章内容,NCC觉得最不能容忍的是?第二段提到了outrageous一词,但是本段只有具体的例子:标榜为蚯蚓之友的德国化肥,无污染的英国面粉和宣称对环境无害的英国手纸。紧接着的几段是关于本次调查的更多阐述,直到第七段才得出调查结论:大约有2000种关于不污染环境的宣称都太含糊,太误导,根本不能达到ISO标准。选项B“产品所宣称的内容通常不清楚或者具有欺骗性,正是表达了这一含义。其实本题也可以采用排除法。A“所有的调查的产品都符合ISO标准,跟原文相悖。C“消费者会相信很多厂家的说法,原文未提及。D“很少有产品最终证明是对环境有利的,文章最后一段说很多措辞太含糊,根本无法检验,因此错误。

  2.D】这是一道细节辨认题。题干内容为如文章所指出,有这么多美好的说法,消费者。关于消费者的态度和反应,第四段借Anna Fielder之口指出 “ …there is a long way to go in ensuring shoppers are adequately informed about the environmental impact of products they buy,”即选项D“消费者仍然无法知晓不同的产品对于环境的影响有多大。”A“对于他们要购买的产品越来越小心,原文未提及。B“仍然不愿意为标有绿色字样的产品多付钱,未提及。C“对于不同产品对环境的影响更加有意识,与原文意思相反。

  3.C】这是一道细节辨认题。要求考生补充题干所缺内容英国NCC所做调查的目的是。文章第六段明确提出 “The report focused on claims made by specific products … It did not test the claims, but compared them to labeling guidelines set by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in September, 1999.” 即选项C“ISO标准来检查产品的说明A“找出有多少产品说明没有达到环境标准,不符合原文。B“告知消费者他们所购买的产品所造成的环境影响,未提及。D“修改国际标准组织的标准,与原文相悖。

  4.B】这是一道细节辨认题,题目问很多家用产品的虚假说明所造成的后果是什么?选项A“他们可能导致严重的环境问题,原文未提及。B“消费者很难分清真伪,正确。参见倒数第二段最后一句“The high numbers show how very confusing it must be for consumers to sort the true from the misleading.” C“他们可能在消费者中引起广泛的愤怒,未提及。D“消费者会被诱惑购买他们并不需要的产品,与本文无关。

  5.A】这是一道推论题。题目问议会厅的国际消费者团体想要。” the lobby group Consumer International 正是这次调查的发起者。文章最后一段提到“ what we are now pushing for is to have multinational corporations meet the standards set by the ISO .”即选项A“是产品的商标符合ISO要求B“保证所有的家用产品都符合环境标准,未提及。C“警告消费者所谓绿色产品的危险性,未提及。D“核实无污染产品的真实性,与原文相悖。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66 In the  long _______ , the new information technologies may fundamentally alter our way of  life.

A) view           B) distance                C) jump          D) run

 

67. All  the arrangements should be completed _______ your departure .

A) prior to      B) superior to           C) contrary to          D) parallel to

 

68. We need to create education standards that prepare our next generation who will be _______ with an even more competitive market

A)tackled         B)encountered            C) dealt         D) confronted

 

69. In the late seventies , the amount of fixed assets required to produce one vehicle in Japan was ______ equivalent to that in the United States.

A)rudely        B) roughly                  C) readily         D) coarsely

 

70 Many people believe we are heading for environmental disaster ______ we radically change way we  live .

A) but          B) although                 C) unless          D) lest    

 


  Two hours from the tall buildings of Manhattan and Philadelphia live some of the world’s largest black bears. They are in northern Pennsylvania’s Pocono Mountains, a home they share with an abundance of other wildlife.
  The streams, lakes, meadows (草地), mountain ridges and forests that make the Poconos an ideal place for black bears have also attracted more people to the region. Open spaces are threatened by plans for housing estates and important habitats (栖息地) are endangered by highway construction. To protect the Poconos natural beauty from irresponsible development, the Nature Conservancy (大自然保护协会) named the area one of America’s “Last Great Places”.
  Operating out of a century-old schoolhouse in the village of Long Pond, Pennsylvania, the conservancy’s bud Cook is working with local people and business leaders to balance economic growth with environmental protection. By forging partnerships with people like Francis Altemose, the Conservancy has been able to protect more than 14,000 acres of environmentally important land in the area.
  Altemose’s family has farmed in the Pocono area for generations. Two years ago Francis worked with the Conservancy to include his farm in a county farmland protection program. As a result, his family’s land can be protected from development and the Altemoses will be better able to provide a secure financial future for their 7-year-old grandson.
  Cook attributes the Conservancy’s success in the Poconos to having a local presence and a commitment to working with local residents
  “The key to protecting these remarkable lands is connecting with the local community,” Cook said. “The people who live there respect the land. They value quiet forests, clear streams and abundant wildlife. They are eager to help with conservation effort.
  For more information on how you can help the Nature Conservancy protect the Poconos and the world’s other “Last Great Places,” please call 1-888-564 6864 or visit us on the World Wide Web at www.tnc.org.
  36. The purpose in naming the Poconos as one of America’s “Last Great Places” is to ________.
  A) gain support from the local community
  B) protect it from irresponsible development
  C) make it a better home for black bears
  D) provide financial security for future generations

  37. We learn from the passage that ________.
  A) the population in the Pocono area is growing
  B) wildlife in the Pocono area is dying out rapidly
  C) the security of the Pocono residents is being threatened
  D) farmlands in the Pocono area are shrinking fast
  38. What is important in protecting the Poconos according to Cook?
  A) The setting up of an environmental protection website
  B) Support from organizations like The Nature Conservancy
  C) Cooperation with the local residents and business leaders
  D) Inclusion of farmlands in the region’s protection program
  39. What does Bud Cook mean by “having a local presence” (Line 1, Para. 5)?
  A) Financial contributions from local business leaders
  B) Consideration of the interests of the local residents
  C) The establishment of a wildlife protection foundation in the area
  D) The setting up of a local Nature Conservancy branch in the Pocono area
  40. The passage most probably is ________.
  A) an official document
  B) a news story
  C) an advertisement
  D) a research report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66-70 DADBC


  这是一篇推广目的很强的实用性文章,文末给出了联系方式,可见这篇文章有头有尾,不同于许多阅读真题中的节选材料。完整引用原文也使这篇材料段落较多,内容较长,加大了阅读的难度。
  文章的主要内容是介绍美国一处自然野生环境面临遭到破坏的危险,以及相关人员和机构为保护这一自然环境奔走努力的经历,写作目的是吸引公众对此事的关注,从而为这一野生环境的保护赢得更多的社会力量。
  全文一共七段,前两段按部就班道出了文章的核心内容。开头介绍了这一野生环境的基本情况,如大体位置(Two hours from the tall buildings),主要物种(生长着黑熊)。第二段介绍这一地区所面临的威胁——空地受到房地产建设的威胁,栖息地受到高速公路建设的威胁——以及相关机构的环保努力(NatureConservancy named the area one of……)。
  接下来的二段继续对NatureConservancy机构的环保行动做进一步的说明。第三段引出了该机构的工作人员Cook,叙述他保护这一地区环境的具体做法:主要是与当地居民和商业领袖共同合作(working with local people and business leaders)。段落最后指出他的工作卓有成效(protect more than 14,000 acres of environmentally important land)。第三段是从环保机构的角度进行叙述,第四段则从当地人的角度讲述环保工作的效果。文章以Altemoses的家庭为例,叙述他们二年前接受Conservancy的环保计划后的变化,一是土地受到保护(land can be protected from development),二是获得了经济上保障(a secure financial future for their 7-year-old grandson)。
  行文至此,读者可知这样一个信息,Conservancy机构的环保工作是成功的。后面两段马上经Cook之口说出了他们成功的秘诀,即与当地人合作(protecting these remarkable lands is connecting with the local community),原因是当地人热爱家乡的自然环境,他们有强烈的保护家乡环境的愿望,更能协助该机构开展工作。
  文章最后给出了免费电话和网站地址,希望更多的人能够了解和参与该机构的环保行动。
  36. B
  题目问把Poconos称为美国最后的伟大之地是为了什么。
  A,获得当地社区的支持。
  B,保护该地不受不负责任的开发。
  C,使其成为黑熊的更好的栖息地。
  D,为未来几代人提供经济保障。
  题目中的关键词Last Great Places出现在第二段末尾:To protect the Poconosnatural beauty from irresponsible development, the NatureConservancy named the area one of America’s “Last Great Places”,主句正好是题目所述内容,而由to引导的状语从句无疑表明了此命名的目的所在。
  Protect the Poconos natural beauty from irresponsible development,这里使用了一个词组protect sth. from sth.,意思是保护……不受……(的侵害),则本句意思就是保护Poconos的自然美景不受不负责任的开发的侵害。B的说法恰好与此一致,可以说本题是一道送分题。
  37. A
  题目问我们能从文章中得知什么。
  APocono地区的人口正在增长。
  BPocono地区的野生动植物正在迅速地灭绝。
  CPocono地区居民的安全正受到威胁。
  DPocono地区的农业用地正快速地缩减。
  四个选项分别从Pocono地区的人口数量、野生动植物、居民安全和农业用地几方面进行说明。
  有关人口的描述从第二段中可以找到,an ideal place forblack bears have also attracted more people to the region,意思是Pocono作为美景之地吸引了越来越多的人来此,后文还提到了房地产开发和公路建设,可见该地区人口确实在增长。A是正确的。
  有关野生动植物的描述为Open spaces arethreatened by plans for housing estates and importanthabitats are endangered by highway construction,这里的谓语是are threatened,意思是受到威胁,可见并不是像B所说的到了灭绝的地步。
  有关居民安全的描述并没有提到,可以排除C
  至于农业用地问题,文章确实有所描述。文章后半部分曾讲到hisfamily’s land can be protected from development,说明农业用地可能受到了开发的影响。但文章没有就这个问题进行详述,也就无从得知农业用地的缩减情况到底如何,所以,D所说的快速缩减不能认为是正确的。
  38. C
  根据Cook的说法,在保护Poconos的问题上哪一点是重要的。
  A,建立一个环境保护网站。
  B,得到诸如The Nature Conservancy等机构的支持。
  C,与当地居民和商业领袖的合作。
  D,将农业用地纳入当地的保护体系。
  题目的关键信息是Cook,这个人物在第三段中开始出现,Cook is working withlocal people and business leaders to balance economic growth with environmentalprotection,这一句意思是Cook正与当地居民和商业领袖合作,在经济增长和环境保护之间求得平衡。Cook第二次出场是在倒数第三段,把机构的成功归因于与当地居民的合作(havinga local presence and a commitment to working with local residents)。倒数第二段直接引用了Cook的原话,第一句大意是保护当地环境的关键(the key)是与当地社区保持合作,此后的几句解释了这一说法的道理所在(Theyare eager to help with conservation effort)。
  从Cook的言行可以看出,在保护Poconos的问题上,与当地居民的合作是至关重要的,尤其是倒数第二段还直接指出了这一点。四个选项中C的说法最为准确。
  39. D
  Cook所说的having a local presence是什么意思。
  A,当地商业领袖资金支持。
  B,把当地居民的利益纳入到考虑当中。
  C,在该地区建立一个野生动植物保护基金。
  D,在Pocono地区建立NatureConservancy的分支机构。
  Having a local presence直译为在当地出现,其语言环境是这样的:Cook attributes the Conservancy’s success in the Poconos to having alocal presence and a commitment to working with local residents,基本结构为sb. attributes sth. to sth.某人把某事归因于某事。这句话的汉语意思是Cook把该机构的成功归因于having a local presence和致力于与当地居民的合作,commitment奉献的意思,而非实行,所以to在这里作为介词连接奉献的对象。
  从句意可以判断出,这个presence至少是和Conservancy联系相当紧密,应该是从该机构角度出发的presence,所以,从商业领袖角度出发的A就不对了。C所说的基金在文中从未提及,也可以排除。B所说的consideration(考虑)和presence(出现、存在)词义上距离过远,为正确答案的可能性不大。
  从句子结构上判断,having a local presence应该和a commitment to working withlocal residents存在紧密的联系,很有可能是递进关系,后者有可能是对前者的解释说明。如果把presence视为D所说的分支结构,那么acommitment to working with local residents这里所述的奉献就是由这个分支机构做出的。从道理上讲,这样分析是说得通的。所以本题选择D
  40.C
  这道题是问这篇材料最有可能是一篇什么。
  A,官方文档。
  B,新闻故事。
  C,广告。
  D,研究报告。
  作为本篇最后一道题,这道题很像是对全篇的考查。若去综合全篇内容,作出判断有一定难度,因为几个答案似乎都有一定的道理,但又都似乎都不是具备完全的说服力。
  其实本题依然考查最后一段。最后一段给出了电话和网址,说明该文档前文的部分应该是起到一个宣传作用,目的是希望得到读者的同情与关注,进而通过电话、网站参与到环境保护活动。由此可见这篇材料应该是一篇公益广告。C是正确的。


Teens参考答案:

D1 1-4 ACAB D2 1-4 CBDC D3 1-4 CBCD

D4 1-4 BDCC D5 1-5 BDCAB 6-10 DBCBD 11-15 CDACB 16-20 CABCD
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